Tuesday, June 18, 2019, 11:34 PM
Site: Green CulturED
Course: Green CulturED (Green CulturED)
Glossary: Industry Terms
4

420

It is a code word used to refer to the socially accepted hour of the day to consume cannabis around 4:20 p.m. (or a.m.) and April 20th (4/20 in the U.S. form) is also celebrated as cannabis’s global holiday. The term originates from San Rafael High School in California (1971) among a group of cannabis-smoking teenagers called the 'Waldos,' who would meet at the campus statue of Louis Pasteur at 4:20 p.m.
7

710

Just like 420, 710 is a term used to celebrate dabs and cannabis concentrates on July 10th (7/10 in the U.S. form). The number 710 spells oil when placed backward; a word used to describe potent concentrations of cannabis like hash oil, honey oil, wax, shatter etc. 710, therefore, is the recognized dab holiday for smoking hash oil due to the number resembling the word ‘oil’ when placed upside-down.
A

Absorb

To draw or take in, roots absorb water and nutrients.

Acapulco Gold

A strain of Cannabis Sativa that was popular during the 1960's counterculture movement for its potency and unique color.

Acid

A sour substance, an acid or sour soil has a low pH.

Active

A hydroponic system that actively moves the nutrient solution.

Adobe

Heavy clay soil that drains slowly - adobe is not suitable for container growing.

Adult Use

Any use of cannabis by adults, whether for medicine, pleasure, religious purposes or otherwise. 

Adventitious Roots

Roots that grow from unusual spots, as on the (stem) pericycle or endodermis of an older root - auxins may influence this type of growth.

Aeration

Also called aerification, it is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance. Also, it is essential to supply soil and roots with air or oxygen.

Aeroponics

Growing cannabis plants by misting roots suspended in air.

Aggregate

A substrate that is of nearly uniform size and used for the inert hydroponic medium.

Agitation

The process of breaking off and harvesting trichomes from the cannabis flower through physical contact. Agitation can be made more effective by freezing the product prior to agitation.

Agronomically

Having to do with the economics of agriculture.

Alcohol Extraction

A process in which cannabis is placed in alcohol to extract the cannabinoids from the plant. After the plant is allowed to soak in warm (but not boiling) alcohol for 10 - 20 minutes, it is strained through a coffee filter until it is clear. One of the best alcohol products to use is isopropyl alcohol. The product is then boiled, with or without added pressure, to completely remove any and all alcohol. It is very important to make sure that all alcohol is removed, as isopropyl alcohol can cause blindness if ingested. What remains is hash oil containing around 90% of the cannabinoids from the plant. The longer the extraction, the more oily the product.

Alkaline

Refers to soil, or any substance, with a pH over 7.

Alkylation

A process in which an alkyl group is substituted or added to a compound.

Alleles

Two genes, each of which occupies the same position on two homogeneous chromosomes.

Alternating Current (AC)

An electrical current that reverses its direction at regularly occurring intervals.

Amendments

Can be either organic or mineral base, amendments change the texture of a growing medium.

Ampere (or Amp)

The unit used to measure the strength of an electric current.

Androecious

A plant having staminate (male).

Anemophilous

Pollinated by wind-dispersed pollen.

Annual

A plant that normally completes its entire life cycle in one year or less - cannabis is an annual plant.

Arc Tube

Container for luminous gases; houses the arc in an High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp.

Aroma

A term used to describe the general smell and/or taste of a certain plant or flower. Because consumers’ individual definition of aromas (such as 'earthy,' 'skunky,' 'citrus,' etc.) can differ somewhat, aroma descriptions are meant as a basic guideline.

Asexual Propagation

Reproducing using non-sexual means such as taking cuttings from a parent plant - will produce exact genetic replicas of the parent plant.

Auto-Buddering

The process of shatter or taffy changing consistency into a budder form. Auto-buddering occurs if a product is kept in too high of heat if it has high wax content or a variety of other environmental factors.

Auxin

Classification of plant hormones, auxins are responsible for foliage and root elongation.

B

Backcross

A type of breeding method that involves crossing a progeny with one of the most desirable original parental genotypes. In cannabis breeding, a hybrid plant is bred with one of its parents to maintain the desired traits of the original parent and enhance those with recessive genes.

Bacteria

Extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall and reproduce by cell division.

Bag Seed

The common term that is given to a seed of unknown origin that was found in a bag of cannabis.

Ballast

A stabilizing unit that regulates the flow of electricity and starts an High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp - a ballast consists of a transformer and a capacitor.

Beneficial Insect

A good insect that eats bad, cannabis-munching insects.

Bhang

Bhang is frequently used as a synonym for cannabis flowers, though the word itself originally refers to a cannabis-infused beverage produced in the Indian subcontinent. This beverage is occasionally prepared with raw, unheated flowers and is not considered a drug. Sometimes, however, it is heated during preparation and thus made with activated cannabinoids.

Biodegradable

To decompose through natural bacterial action - substances made of organic matter can be broken down naturally.

Biosynthesis

The production of a chemical compound by a plant.

Blasting

The process of creating hash oil by passing a solvent through the cannabis plant material.

Bleach

Household laundry bleach is used in a mild water solution to sterilize grow rooms and as soil fungicide.

Blood Meal

High-nitrogen organic fertilizer made from dried blood.

Bloom

To yield cannabis flowers.

Bloom Booster

Fertilizer high in phosphorus and potassium that increases cannabis flower yield and weight.

Blue Dream

This renowned Sativa-heavy hybrid is one of the most sought-after strains and it is bred from a cross between Blueberry Indica and Haze Sativa, Blue Dream is a great daytime strain - it provides symptom relief without knocking you out for the rest of the day.

Blunt

A method of smoking cannabis which consists of hollowing out a cigar, filling it with cannabis, and re-rolling it. Blunts tend to be the favorite method of smoking at parties, because one blunt, even with a dozen people smoking it, can burn for a long time. The method was originally nicknamed after the Phillies Blunt brand of cigars. 'Dutchies' referring to blunts rolled from Dutch Master cigars, is another common name. People who avoid tobacco are generally averse to smoking blunts, because most cigar casings are made from tobacco leaf.

Blunt Wrap

Tobacco-based rolling paper designed for people who enjoy rolling their own blunts. The paper mimics the casing of regular cigars, but can come in a wide variety of sizes and flavors. Blunt wraps are taxed as tobacco products in various states, and may require a license to sell.

Bong

A bong is usually a glass, ceramic, or plastic apparatus that is used to smoke cannabis flowers, herbal extracts, or tobacco. A bong, similar to a hookah, filters smoke through water so that it may be cooled before it is inhaled. In its simplest form, a bong consists of a bowl and a stem, but as the complexity and artisanship increases and the bong becomes more sophisticated, ash catchers, ice holders, and percolators may be incorporated. These additional 'contraptions' are intended to further purify and cleanse the smoke. 

Bonsai

A very short or dwarfed cannabis plant.

Bowl

The part of your cannabis instrument of choice (pipe or bong) where you pack (place) the bud. On pipes, there’s often a hole on the side of it that you cover when inhaling cannabis smoke. Alternatively, bowl can be used to refer to the pipe as a whole, or it can be used as a crude unit of measurement.

Bract

Small spur-like foliage that grows from the stem at the point from which flowers emerge.

Breaker Box

Electrical circuit box having on/off switches rather than fuses, the main breaker box is also called a 'service panel.'

Breed

To sexually propagate cannabis under controlled circumstances.

Bubbler

A bubbler is essentially a cross between a pipe and a bong. It's like a pipe because it has the size and shape of a pipe, and also includes a hole or 'carb' on the side of the bowl. But it also usually has a bulb under the bowl to hold water, allowing water filtration just like in a bong. This is useful if you want something portable like a pipe that still has the potency of a bong. It is named for the sound the water makes when you smoke it.

Bud

Bud refers to the actual flower of the cannabis plant. These are the fluffy parts that are harvested and used for recreational or medicinal purposes as they contain the highest concentrations of active cannabinoids.

Bud Blight

A withering condition that attacks cannabis' flowering buds.

Budder

A budder is the most potent solvent-extract cannabis product with a Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) concentration of up to 99.6%. The cannabis concentrate that is similar to wax but more pliable retains more of the terpenes so it tends to be more flavorful than other types of harsh oils.

Budtender

A dispensary employee, similar to a pharmacist, who works behind the counter and showcases the stores' different products. They are usually very knowledgeable and will help guide you through your cannabis experience. Remember, they are there to help; if you have any questions from strain types to ingestion methods, feel free to ask.

Buffer

A substance that reduces the shock and cushions against fluctuations, many fertilizers contain buffer agents.

Bulb

Outer glass envelope or jacket that protects the arc tube of an High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp.

Bulbous Trichome

Ball-shaped, resin-producing plant hair without a stalk.

Butane

One of the most popular solvents used in earlier concentrate extraction methods. Butane is marginally cheaper than propane and can be used to produce a wide range of concentrate products.

Butane Hash Oil (or BHO)

A strong concentrate of cannabinoids that is obtained by immersing the cannabis plant in a solvent, normally butane leaving a stick and resinous liquid after the extraction process. It has a high concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) going up to 80% and is also referred to as 'honey oil,' 'earwax' or 'shatter,' depending on the mode of production. Butane hash oil can be smoked, vaporized directly or ingested by mixing it with other edible products.
C

Callus

Tissue made of undifferentiated cells produced by rooting hormones on plant cuttings.

Calyx

Refers to the sepals found in the cannabis flower that is usually covered in resinous trichomes, containing high concentrations of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and other cannabinoids. In the case of fertilization, the calyxes become the housing structures for the forming seeds. Growers can really benefit by maintaining seedless calyxes as it increases the potency of the resulting buds.

Cambium

Layer of cells which divide and differentiates into xylem and phloem and are responsible for growth.

Cannabaceae

Scientific family to which Cannabis (marijuana) and Humulus (hops) belong.

Cannabichromene (or CBC)

Second most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis, Cannabichromene (or CBC) is considered one of the 'big six' cannabinoids prominent in medical research. It doesn’t get as much attention, but CBC has the same origins as both Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and Cannabidiol (or CBD) do in that they all stem from Cannabigerolic Acid (or CBGA). Cannabis plants produce CBGA, the precursor to three major cannabinoids: Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (or THCA), Cannabidiolic Acid (or CBDA), and Cannabichromenic Acid (or CBCA).

Cannabidiol (or CBD)

The second-most common cannabinoid (chemical unique to cannabis) found in cannabis, Cannabidiol (or CBD) are the non-psychoactive ingredient of cannabis that is used to treat a number of diseases, including epilepsy and autism. It was almost bred out of cannabis because people were more concerned with getting high off Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC), but recently it’s been making a comeback for the aforementioned medical reasons. 

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (or CHS)

Can occur with cannabis use and is characterized by recurrent nausea, vomiting, and crampy abdominal pain. These symptoms have been reported to be improved temporarily by taking a hot shower or bath, or more fully by stopping the use of cannabis. It is important that Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome be distinguished from other causes of nausea and vomiting, such as cyclic vomiting syndrome

Cannabinoid Profile

Proportional ratio and levels of major cannabinoids found in cannabis being tested. Cannabis testing is the scientific process of measuring different chemicals and compounds in the product. They can measure beneficial constituents like cannabinoids and terpenes, or not-so-desirable contaminants such as pesticides, mold, and residual solvents. Research is now showing that strains exhibit different compound profiles, unique 'fingerprints' built by a specific composition of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Cannabinoid Receptors

Located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane receptors in the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. There are currently two known subtypes of Cannabinoid Receptors, termed CB1 Receptor and CB2 Receptor. The CB1 Receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (Central Nervous System), but also in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. The CB2 Receptor is expressed mainly in the immune system and in hematopoietic cells.

Cannabinoids

A hydrocarbon unique to cannabis, it produces a variety of compounds known as cannabinoids, many of which have not been detected in any other plant. Most of them are present at very low levels, especially in commercial cannabis products, making it difficult for scientists to accurately detect them. The important point is that there are many. Cannabinoids are a large class of compounds that act on the brains cannabinoid receptors in cells that repress neurotransmitter release. Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) is the most well-known cannabinoid due to its euphoric and psychoactive effects on your body (ex. the 'high'). THC can alter behavior, consciousness, mood, and perception. Most health benefits of cannabis are associated with the Cannabidiol (or CBD) cannabinoid. Cannabis products are often enhanced with CBD to provide more potent effects. Choose a strain with high levels of CBD if you're looking to use cannabis as an alternative form of medication. 

Cannabinol (or CBN)

Cannabinol (or CBN) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis and is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC). CBN acts as a partial agonist at the CB1 Receptors, but has a higher affinity to CB2 Receptors; however, it has lower affinities relative to THC. Degraded or oxidized cannabis products, such as low-quality baled cannabis and traditionally produced hashish, are high in CBN, but modern production processes minimize the formation of CBN.

Cannabis

Cannabis is a plant genus that produces three species of flowering plants: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, and Cannabis Ruderalis. Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica are used to produce both recreational and medical cannabis. Cannabis Ruderalis is rarely farmed due to its natural lower Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) content and small stature, but there is some cross-breeding thanks to Ruderalis‘ unique ability to auto-flower rather than mature based on light, so there is potential for this variety to grow in popularity. Cannabis is native to Asia, but grows almost anywhere and has long been cultivated both for the production of hemp and to be used as a drug.

Cannabis Concentrate

A cannabis concentrate [also called concentrates, extract, shatter, wax, butane hash oil or Butane Honey Oil (or BHO), live resin, budder, and taffy] is a highly potent Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) concentrated mass that is most similar in appearance to either honey or butter, which is why it is referred to or known as 'honey oil' or 'budder'. Cannabis concentrates contain extraordinarily high cannabinoid levels that could once range from 40 - 80%, up to four times stronger in cannabinoid content than the high grade or top-shelf cannabis, which normally measures around 20% THC levels. 

Cannabis Consumption

Cannabis consumption refers to the variety of ways cannabis is consumed, among which inhalation (smoking and vaporizing) and ingestion are most common. Each method leads to subtly different psychoactive effects due to the Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and other chemicals being activated, and then consumed through different administration routes. It is generally considered that smoking, which includes combustion toxins, comes on quickly but lasts for a short period of time while eating delays the onset of effect but the duration of effect is typically longer. Researchers reported that vaporizer users experience the same biological effect, but without the toxins associated with smoking.

Cannabis Cup

The High Times Cannabis Cup is the world’s foremost cannabis festival. Founded in 1988 by Steven Hager, the  Cannabis Cup is the world's leading cannabis event and most trusted cannabis strain competition in the industry. The event allows judges from around the world to sample and vote for their favorite cannabis varieties. These judges-at-large decide the Cannabis Cup (overall winner in the cannabis variety competition), best new product, best booth, best glass, etc. A team of VIP judges decides which seed company has grown the best Indica, Sativa and hybrid strain and which company has produced the best. The High Times Cannabis Cup also includes live music, educational seminars and an expo for cannabis-related products from cannabis-oriented businesses.

Cannabis Essential Oil

Known as 'Hemp Essential Oil,' is an essential oil obtained by steam distillation from the flowers and upper leaves of the hemp plant (Cannabis Sativa) Hemp essential oil is distinct from hemp seed oil, hemp oil, and hash oil: the former is a vegetable oil that is pressed from the seeds of low-cannabinoid varieties of hemp, the latter is a cannabinoid-rich extract of dried female hemp flowers (cannabis) or resin (hashish).

Cannabis Flowers

The flowering part of the cannabis plant that can either be male or female. Female flowers usually produce Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and other cannabinoids in higher amounts than the other parts of the plant. The female flowers are fertilized by the male plants to produce cannabis seeds. If left unfertilized, the female flowers continue to produce the resin that contains active cannabinoids until their point of harvest.

Cannabis Indica

Formally known as Cannabis Sativa, is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family. It is a putative species of the genus Cannabis. Whether it and Cannabis Sativa are truly separate species is a matter of debate. Many uses come from Cannabis Indica, such as extraction, cultivation, cloth from the fibers, medical uses, and a drug plant. Cannabis Indica produces large amounts of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC). The large amounts of THC make it most commonly used as a drug, whether it be for recreational or medical purposes.

Cannabis Oil

Refers to a sticky, dark-red potent concentrate commonly consumed by dabbing or vaporizing. It is extracted by the use of solvents e.g. butane, ethanol or naphtha to separate the cannabinoids and essential oils from the plant material. Cannabis oil has high concentrations of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and Cannabidiol (or CBD) making it ideal for a broad range of medical conditions like cancer, chronic pain, anxiety, depression, convulsions etc. It releases pleasure hormones, relaxes the mind and induces a sense of calm and relaxation. Cannabis oil is usually consumed in vape pens, bongs, and bubblers.

Cannabis Prohibition

Laws in some jurisdictions banning the cultivation or sales of cannabis in an attempt to prevent its use - these bans are criticized because they create a black market and law enforcement is disproportionately enforced around the world.

Cannabis Ruderalis

A low-Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) species of Cannabis which is native to Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Many scholars accept Cannabis Ruderalis as its own species due to its unique traits and phenotypes which distinguish it from Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa, however, it is widely debated as to whether or not Ruderalis is a sub-species of Cannabis Sativa.

Cannabis Sativa

An annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods, and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.

Cannabis Strains

Are either pure or hybrid varieties of the plant genus Cannabis, which encompasses the species Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, and Cannabis Ruderalis.

Cannabis Tea

Also known as herbal tea, weed tea, pot tea, ganja tea, or green tea is a cannabis-infused drink made with cannabis-infused in hot or cold water. Properly produced decarboxylated cannabis teas are very effective when ingested.

Capitate Stalked Trichome

Resin-producing plant hair without a stalk, high in Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) content.

Carb Cap

A carb cap is a dabbing tool used to vaporize concentrates at low temperatures to optimize the flavor and give a smoother experience. The concentrate is placed onto the nail (hot surface) and the device creates a chamber with restricted airflow for the concentrates to vaporize within. It is made of glass, ceramic, quartz or titanium and features a hollowed-rounded head (cap) and a pointed handle that doubles as a dabbing tool to help with concentrate application.

Carbohydrate

A neutral compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, mostly formed by green plants - sugar, starch, and cellulose are carbohydrates.

Carbon Dioxide (or CO2)

A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas in the air and necessary for plant life.

Carbon Dioxide (or CO2) Enrichment

Adding carbon dioxide (or CO2) gas to augment grow room or greenhouse atmosphere to speed the cannabis plants' growth.

Carbon Dioxide (or CO2) Extraction

Also known as supercritical carbon dioxide (or CO2) extraction, CO2 extraction is a technique that freezes and compresses CO2 to its supercritical state then passes the cold CO2 liquefied gas through cannabis, pulling all of the essential cannabinoids, terpene oils and waxes out of the plant material into collection receptacles. The method leaves no residue and produces an amber-colored oil which can be vaporized in a number of ways.

Carbon Dioxide (or CO2) for Cultivation

It is the addition of carbon dioxide (or CO2) to cannabis gardens to quicken the plant development and pack weight onto their buds, increasing the crop’s yield. Cannabis growers operating a closed system use CO2 generators to increase concentrations of carbon dioxide to around 800 - 1,500 Parts-Per-Million (PPM). The use of CO2 for cultivation, however, is more effective if the plants are fed with more hydroponic nutrients, light, and water.

Cashed

This refers to the state of depleted cannabis whose contents have been thoroughly used up leaving behind an ash residue. Cannabis smokers use the term to describe a bowl that has been smoked out until all resin is gone and there is nothing but ash. Cannabis that has reached its cashpoint should be emptied and repacked.

Caustic

A substance that destroys, kills or eats away by chemical activity.

Cell

The base structural unit of plants - a cell contains a nucleus, membrane, and chloroplasts.

Cellulose

A complex carbohydrate that stiffens a plant - outdoor stems contain more stiff cellulose than plants grown indoors.

Centigrade

A scale for measuring temperature where 100 degrees is the boiling point of water and 0 degrees is the freezing point of water.

Chalice

A chalice, also known as a wisdom chalice or chillum chalice, is a type of cannabis smoking pipe used most often by members of the Jamaican Rastafari movement. It is a sort of water pipe with a hose, or drawtube, for inhaling; the water cools and filters the smoke and the hose provides additional airspace for cooling. A screen embedded in the crater protects against drawing in burning particles to clog the interior.

Charas

Charas (Hindi/Urdu) is the name given to a hashish form of cannabis which is handmade in many South Asian countries and Jamaica. It is made from the resin of the cannabis plant (Cannabis Sativa or Cannabis Indica). The plant grows wild throughout Northern India along the stretch of the Himalayas (its putative origin) and is an important cash crop for the local people. The difference between charas and hashish is that hashish is made from a dead cannabis plant and charas is made from a live one.

Charlotte's Web

Charlotte's Web is a high-Cannabidiol (or CBD), low-Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) Cannabis strain, it does not induce the psychoactive 'high' typically associated with recreational cannabis strains that are high in THC.

Cheeba

Cheeba is a slang word for cannabis. Cheeba Chews are medical cannabis-infused edibles that are usually gummy and compressed into small bricks.

Chelate

Metal chelate compounds are common components of fertilizers to provide micronutrients. These micronutrients (manganese, iron, zinc, copper) are required for the health of the plants. Most fertilizers contain phosphate salts that, in the absence of chelating agents, typically convert these metal ions into insoluble solids that are of no nutritional value to the plants. Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions, usually, these ligands are organic compounds and are called chelants, chelators, chelating agents, or sequestering agents.

Cherried

A bowl that will stay burning without the need for a lighter or match. Cherried bowls are much simpler to smoke because you just have to keep hitting it to keep it cherried. It's important to note, however, that because your cannabis will be continuously burning whether or not you're smoking it, you have to be careful that a cherried bowl doesn't smoke itself.

Chillum

A term for a small device that can be carried around discreetly and holds a very small amount of cannabis. 

Chimera

A plant or organism with tissues from at least two genetically distinct parents.

Chlorophyll

Green photosynthetic matter of plants - chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of a cell and is necessary to photosynthesis.

Chlorosis

The condition of a sick plant with yellowing leaving due to inadequate formation of chlorophyll, chlorosis is caused by a nutrient deficiency.

Chromosomes

Microscopically small, dark-staining bodies visible in the nucleus of a cell at the time of nuclear cell division and the number in any species is usually constant - a cannabis plant has 10 pairs of chromosomes.

Circuit

A circular route traveled by electricity from a power source, through an outlet, and back to the ground.

Clam Baking

Smoking in an enclosed space or car so that it fills up with smoke.

Clay Soil

Soil made of very fine organic and mineral particles, clay soil drains slowly and is not suitable for container gardening.

Climate

The average condition of the weather in a grow room or outdoors.

Clone

A clone is a cannabis plant clipping that can be planted and grown, creating a genetic copy of the mother. Scientifically, cloning is the act of asexually propagating the cannabis plant to create a genetic copy. Cloning is very popular in the cannabis industry and many strains are simply 'clones' that are passed from one grower to another.

Closed-Loop Extraction

Most commonly referring to butane or propane extraction, closed-loop extraction is a chemical extraction process that recycles hydrocarbon solvent or carbon dioxide (or CO2) in a closed system, opposed to releasing the gas into the air. The closed-loop method is far safer than open blasting.

Cola

The cola is the large flower cluster at the top of a cannabis plant's main stem (larger side branches can also contain cola nugs). The cola is heavily-coated in kief, which makes it both the strongest and tastiest part of a cannabis plant to smoke. Mexican and North American slang word for cannabis flow top - 'cola' in Spanish actually means tail.

Colchicine

A poisonous alkaloid from the autumn crocus, used in plant breeding to induce polypoid mutations.

Cold

For cannabis plants, air temperatures below 50 F (10 C).

Cold Frame

An unheated outdoor structure usually clad in glass or clear plastic used to protect and acclimatize cannabis seedlings and plants.

Color Spectrum

The band of colors (measured in Nm) emitted by a light source.

Color Tracer

A coloring agent that is added to many commercial fertilizers so the horticulturist knows there is fertilizer in the solution.

Combustion

The process of burning a material - combustion occurs when smoking flower.

Compaction

Soil condition that results from the tightly packed soil which limits aeration and root penetration.

Companion Planting

Planting garlic, marigolds, etc., along with cannabis plants to discourage pests.

Compost

A mixture of decayed organic matter, high in nutrients - compost must be well-rotted before use.

Concentrate

It is a highly potent Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) concentrated mass obtained by the use of a solvent to dissolve essential oils and resinous cannabinoids from the plant material. Cannabis concentrates are loved for delivering high THC levels and allowing individuals to take them in ways other than smoking joints including dabbing and use of vaporizers. Concentrates are referenced under different names like Butane Hash Oil (or BHO), wax, oil, shatter, crumble etc.

Concentrate Slurry

Pre-purged concentrate that has high Parts-Per-Million (or PPM) of residual solvent - slurry can be either solid and airy, or liquefied and runny.

Cone

A cone is a type of joint that is more conical than a typical joint or cigarette. The cone starts straight and thin but widens as the cone gets longer. A crutch or filter is often included and stops the cannabis from falling out of the bottom of the cone and it also stops resin from clogging the end of the joint.

Convection

The transfer of heat within a melted concentrate liquid that, in combination with inhaled airflow, circulates current and evenly vaporizes the concentrate - convection occurs when using a carp cap.

Core

The transformer in the ballast is often referred to as a core.

Cotton Mouth

It is a common effect of cannabis that causes one to have a dry and sticky feeling in the mouth. Consuming cannabis regardless of the method dries out the mucous membranes and may cause one’s salivary glands to produce less spit or saliva. The condition also known as dry mouth or hypo-salivation can be managed by drinking plenty of water.

Cotyledon

Seed leaves, first leaves that appear on a cannabis plant.

Couch Lock

An instant high-effect that leads to a sedative kind of experience once you have consumed cannabis, higher terpene levels in the strain is responsible for the couch lock sensation.

Couchy

Usually used in reference to Indica-heavy strains that make you groggy or sleepy - if you smoke some couchy cannabis while you’re on a couch, you’re probably not getting up anytime soon.

Creeper

Cannabis high in Cannabidiol (or CBD) having psychoactive qualities that sneak up on the smoker - highs usually last longer.

Critical Day Length

Maximum day length which will bring about flowering in cannabis plants.

Cross

The act of breeding different species or strains of cannabis to produce unique, better cannabis varieties. Most of the strains available in the market today are crossbreeds of different strains. The goal is to obtain desirable traits of both parents within one’s gene pool so hybrids not only have to be a Sativa/Indica-cross but can be two different strains of the same type.

Cross-Pollination

Fertilizing a cannabis plant with pollen from an unrelated individual plant of the same species.

Crutch

Usually made from a small piece of thick paper (such as the inner lining of a cigarette carton or the outer flap of a pack of rolling papers), a crutch is a short cylinder rolled into a joint or spliff at the side that touches your lips. The crutch serves a dual purpose - first, it prevents the end of the joint from getting wet and collapsing in on itself, making smoking it rather unpleasant. Second, it makes rolling the joint easier - the shape of the crutch determines, at least to a certain extent, the shape of the joint.

Crystals

Crystals or trichomes are the part of the cannabis plant that holds the most cannabinoids and is specifically used to make concentrates like kief or hash. Typically when looking at buds, the more crystals you see, the more potent the product.

Cubic Feet-per-Minute (CFM)

Measures air velocity - ventilation or extraction fans are measured in the Cubic Feet-per-Minute (CFM) of air they can move.

Cubic Foot (or Meter)

Volume measurement in feet (or meter): width x length x height = cubic feet (or meter).

Cultivar

A contraction of 'cultivated variety,' a variety of plant that has been intentionally created or selected - not naturally occurring.

Cure

Curing is a very important process during the growth of a cannabis plant, which allows for a much higher quality end product. When you move your plant from the drying process to curing at just the right time, one will have more control over the level of moisture of the bud, allowing for the grower to greatly increase it’s flavor, potency and other desired characteristics. If not cured properly, one will experience a harsher inhale or even bad smelling bud.

Cuticle

A thin layer of plant wax (cutin) on the surface of the aboveground parts of cannabis plants.

D

Dab (or Dabbing)

The process of smoking cannabis concentrates like butane harsh oil, budder, wax or shatter by placing a ‘dab’ of cannabis concentrate onto a heated surface is known as a nail. The super-high concentrates are made by extracting Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) which is a strong psychoactive chemical compound and through a process that uses hydrocarbons as the solvent. Dabbing provides a different and more powerful high than smoking buds or flowers thus one should know their limits so as not to overdo it.

Dabber

It is a long, pointy tool used to place the cannabis concentrates to a heated surface or nail while you suck the bong to get the smoke - it’s made of glass or metal and helps a user to dab safely without risking getting hurt.

Damping-Off

Fungus disease that attacks young cannabis seedlings and clones causing the stem to rot at the base - over-watering is the main cause of damping-off.

Dank

A term used by people who regularly get high to refer to something of superior quality. More specifically, it can be used to refer to very strong smelling and thus high-quality cannabis. Dank would be synonymous with words like remarkable and awesome.

Decarboxylate (or Decarbing)

Decarboxylation of cannabis involves exposure of the cannabinoids to extremely hot temperatures (like smoking), thus removing the acidic component of the compound and converting it into a more desired cannabinoid. Acidic compounds such as Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (or THCA) and Cannabidiolic Acid (or CBDA) are transformed into Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and Cannabidiol (or CBD) respectively. Once cannabis decarboxylated, it can be used in edibles or tinctures.

Decompose

To rot or decay, etc., through organic chemical change.

Dehumidify

To remove moisture from the air.

Dehydrate

To remove water from cannabis plants' foliage.

Deplete

To exhaust soil of nutrients, making it infertile - once the soil is used to grow a cannabis garden, it is depleted.

Desiccate

To cause to dry up - insecticidal soap desiccates its victims.

Detergent

Liquid soap concentrate used as a wetting agent for sprays and water or a pesticide - detergent must be totally organic to be safe for cannabis plants.

Dewaxing

The process of removing waxes and lipid fats from concentrates to create a purer, more stable product - dewaxing is typically conducted when creating shatter.

Diapause

A period of cannabis plant dormancy during which growth or development is suspended or diminished.

Diesel

It is a Sativa strain named after its pungent diesel-like aroma - it a great pick for those looking for a mood-boosting high with a heightened clarity of mind and the most well-known variety of diesel is 'Sour Diesel.'

Diffuser

A component of many bubblers, bongs, and water pipes that aids in cooling the smoke prior to inhalation, thus making it a smoother hit for your lungs. The diffuser is usually located at the bottom of the downstem, touching the water, and this diffusion allows for air to escape. There are several different types of diffusers, some with more holes than others, but all of them have the same purpose: to provide additional surface area for the formation of bubbles, which helps air flow through the smoking device for a smoother hit.

Dioecious

A population consisting of gynoecious and androecious plants.

Dioecy

A condition where separate sexes occur on separate individual cannabis plants - each plant displays a single gender.

Direct Current (or DC)

A continuous electric current that only flows in one direction.

Disease

Cannabis plant sickness of any kind.

Dispensary

A dispensary is a store that legally sells cannabis in a variety of forms, as well as other products, including paraphernalia and clothing. Depending on where you are in the country, one will find medical and recreational dispensaries, which offer products to patients or to the public, respectfully. Locations can greatly differ from one another, but almost all will feature a secure point of entry and one or more display rooms with multiple product offerings.

Ditch Weed

Ditch weed refers to wild, scattered cannabis with low cannabinoid levels that normally grows by the roadside or in the fields - it descended from industrial hemp plant widely cultivated for fiber. 

Dome

A dabbing tool with a glass hood that is placed around the nail, and a tiny opening in the top that helps capture and direct the vapor through the rig when it comes off the nail - domes can often be very intricate pieces of art as they are made of glass.

Domeless Nail

A device combining the dome and nail that were originally separate entities. It is usually made from a heat-resistant material such as glass or ceramic and the domeless nail is used for dabbing and allows an individual to inhale smoke through a hole above a narrow section that the substance is dabbed into. Overall, the single piece reduces the mess and frustration of burning your fingers when adjusting the nail and dome combination.

Doobie

A term used by older individuals and past generations to refer to a joint - the term is still used in certain circles, but its precedence has largely fallen off in recent years, perhaps because it sounds so silly.

Dose

Amount of fertilizer, insecticide, etc. given to a cannabis plant, usually in a water solution.

Double Potting

A two-pot transplanting technique that minimizes root disturbances.

Double-Ended Lights

High-Pressure Sodium (or HPS) light designed to deliver high-intensity and supplemental lighting in greenhouse cannabis production. The lights attach to the greenhouse fixture at both ends to increase light intensity for better plant growth. Double ended lights are the latest evolution of traditional cannabis lighting that was developed to make traditional lighting more competitive with Light-Emitting Diode (or LED) lights.

Downstem

The piece that connects the bowl to the water source. The smoke travels from the bowl containing cannabis through the downstem and into the water so that you can inhale from the bong or bubbler and take in cannabis smoke in a lighter and smoother form. Only devices that involve water filtration require downstems.

Drainage

To the empty soil of excess water - good drainage allows water to pass through the soil, evenly promoting plant growth and bad drainage is where water stands in the soil, actually drowning roots.

Drip Irrigation System

An efficient watering system that employs a main hose with small water emitters (tiny holes) which meter out water one drip a time at regular, frequent intervals.

Drip Line

A line around a plant directly under its outermost branch tips - roots seldom grow beyond the drip line.

Dronabinol

Dronabinol – trade names Marinol and Syndros – is a synthetic form of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) approved as an appetite stimulant for people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (or AIDS) and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy. THC is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and the term also refers to cannabinoid isomers. 

Drug Paraphernalia

A term to denote any equipment, product or accessory that is modified for making, using, or concealing drugs, typically for recreational purposes. Paraphernalia generally falls into two categories - user-specific products and dealer-specific products.

Dry Ice

Cold, white solid substance formed when carbon dioxide (or CO2) is compressed and cooled - dry ice changes into CO2 gas at room temperatures.

Dry Sieve Hash

Dry sieve hash or dry sift is a form of non-solvent hash comprised of extracted cannabis trichomes, parts of the cannabis plant that contain the active compound Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and other cannabinoids like Cannabidiol (or CBD), Cannabinol (or CBN), and Cannabigerol (or CBG). It is done through a technique involving the use of a screen or sieve that mechanically splits the trichome heads from the cannabis plant. The powdery, crystalline resin is captured as it falls from the plant and is referred to as the dry sieve hash.

Dry Soil Pocket

A small portion of soil that remains dry after watering - dry soil pockets may be remedied by adding a wetting agent (soap) to water and/or waiting 15 minutes between watering.

Dugout

A hand-held wooden box that holds a small one-hitter and a limited amount of ground cannabis in two different sections. A user would slide open the dugout, pull out the commonly spring-loaded pipe and pack it by pressing it into the compartment containing the bud. Dugouts are popular because of its semi-discreetness and level of easiness to use.
E

E-Nail

An invention in concentrate and dabbing communities, specifically, E-Nails are digitally controlled heating devices that allow the user to keep a consistent heat setting so as to always get the best tasting and potent hit. Compared to the typical hand torch, which often delivers varying results, this tool takes dabbing to the next level.

Earwax

A product is made by whipping oils extracted from the hash, you can mix the oil using a whisk that you would typically use for whipping heavy cream into whipped cream. However, unlike the baking process, the hash oil must be heated while being whipped with the whisk. The oil substance will become lighter and fluffier in texture and is often considered more delightful to smoke.

Edibles

Edibles are cannabis-infused products that are consumed orally, versus smoking flower or concentrate. Some of the more common forms of edibles include baked goods (like brownies and cookies) and candy (like chocolate, gummies and lollipops), but can also be found in coffee, beef jerky, soda and more. Eating an edible is different than smoking bud because it’s being digested versus inhaled, which often results in a more intense and elongated high. When consuming an edible, it’s always safe to go slow and feel the intended effects first before consuming more.

Effects (of Cannabis)

The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids, such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC), which is only one of more than 100+ different cannabinoids present in the plant. Cannabis has various psychological and physiological effects on the human body.

Eighth

An 'eighth' (or 1/8) of an ounce (or 28.5 grams) refers to a specific quantity of cannabis which equates to 3.5 grams. Dispensaries will sell their products to consumers and patients using this amount. Other common amounts are a 'quarter' (or 1/4) of an ounce (or 28.5 grams) which equates to sevens grams of cannabis.

Electrode

A solid electric conductor used to establish an electrical arc between contacts at either end of an High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp.

Elongate

To grow in length - cannabis stretches from three inches (or 7.5 centimeters) to a foot (or 0.3 meters) when flowering is induced.

Embolism

Bubbles of air in the transpiration stream of a cutting or cannabis clone - blocks uptake of water and nutrients.

Embryo

A young plant, developing within the seed - in cannabis, an embryo is derived from a fertilized ovule.

Encarsia Formosa

A parasitic wasp that preys on whiteflies.

Endocannabinoid System (or ECS)

A biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating a variety of physiological and cognitive processes including fertility, pregnancy, during pre- and post-natal development, appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the pharmacological effects of cannabis. 

Entheogen

An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development - the term entheogen is often chosen to contrast the recreational use of the same drugs.

Envelope

Outer protective bulb or jacket of a lamp.

Epsom Salts

Hydrated magnesium sulfate in the form of white crystalline salt - epsom salts add magnesium to the soil.

Equinox

When the sun crosses the equator and day and night are each 12 hours long - the equinox happens twice a year.

Errl

Another nickname for Butane Hash Oil (or BHO).

Essential Oils

Volatile oils that give cannabis plants their characteristic odor or flavor - contained in the secreted resins of plants.

Ethane Methyl Sulfonate

A mutagenic chemical that causes changes at the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (or DNA) level - induces genetic mutations.

Ethanol Extraction

It is the process of extracting essential oils and cannabinoids from the cannabis plant by using ethyl or isopropyl as the solvent. Once the plant material is removed, the alcohol is evaporated leaving behind a sticky and highly potent substance. Further purification is done to obtain the various forms of hash oil including oil, shatter, budder or wax.

Etiolation

The growth of a cannabis plant in total darkness to increase the chances of root initiation.

Etymology (of Cannabis)

The plant name Cannabis is from Greek (kánnabis), via Latin cannabis, originally a Scythian or Thracian word, also loaned into Persian as kanab. English hemp (Old English hænep) may be an early loan (predating Grimm's Law) from the same Scythian source.

Extract

An extract is another term for concentrate, a highly-potent substance derived from the cannabis plant, extracts are usually produced in a very scientific manner and producing them should generally be left to the experts, as it can be very hard and sometimes dangerous.

Extraction

The process of obtaining cannabinoid-rich cannabis concentrates from the cannabis plants. The concentrates are produced in a scientific manner that utilizes solvents like butane, alcohol or carbon dioxide. The methods for extraction include Butane Hash Oil (or BHO), ethanol or supercritical carbon dioxide (or CO2), water processes.
F

F1

First filial generation, the offspring of two P1 (parent) cannabis plants.

F2

Second filial generation, resulting from a cross between two F1 cannabis plants.

Fan Leaves

Large, fan-like cannabis leaves - fan leaves are usually low in potency.

Fatty

This refers to a rolled cannabis cigarette or joint which is quite large as it contains a large amount of cannabis. Usually, a fatty is shared among a group of people and can last over a period of time. The common use is, 'Want to smoke a fatty?'

Female

Pistillate, ovule, and seed producing cannabis plant.

Feminized

Feminized plants come from seeds that have been selectively bred to produce only female plants since they produce flowers (which is where most of the cannabinoids are found) and are the only ones that are used to create cannabis products. Feminized seeds are intended to make things easier for growers by eliminating the need to determine the sex of growing plants and remove males early on to prevent fertilization. Generally, feminized seeds produce the same quality of plants as naturally produced seeds.

Feral Cannabis

Feral cannabis (often referred to as 'ditch weed') is wild-growing cannabis generally descended from industrial hemp plants previously cultivated for fiber, with low or negligible amounts of psychoactive Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC).

Fertilize

To apply fertilizer and nutrients to cannabis plants' roots and foliage as well as to impregnate male pollen with female plant ovary.

Fertilizer Burn

Over-fertilization - first, leaf tips brown, then leaves curl.

Fire

Slang for high-quality cannabis - it will usually have a solid amount of red hairs throughout and tons of crystals, but it may also reference a lighter.

Flat

A shallow container used to start cannabis seedlings or clones.

Flower

Blossom, a mass of calyxes on a cannabis plant's stem, top, or bud. The flowers of a cannabis plant refer to the hairy, often sticky bud or parts of the plant that are harvested and used to consume in a variety of cannabis products. Technically speaking, they’re the reproductive organs of the plant and when fertilized by a male plant, seeds will be produced. The word 'flower' is slowly becoming a replacement word among professionals in the cannabis industry and this is because the highest-quality cannabis consists of only undeveloped flowers, also known as the plant's buds.

Flower Child

This term originated as a synonym for hippie, especially among the idealistic young people who gathered in San Francisco and the surrounding area during the Summer of Love. It was the custom of 'flower children' to wear and distribute flowers or floral-themed decorations to symbolize the ideals of universal belonging, peace, and love. The mass media picked up on the term and used it to refer in a broad sense to any hippie. Flower children were also associated with the flower power political movement, which originated in ideas written by Allen Ginsberg.

Flowering Time

Flowering time references the period in which a cannabis plant produces flowers (bud), typically after the vegetative stage when it’s been actively growing. A plant enters the flowering time when its exposure to light hits 12 or fewer hours a day, typically around the fall in nature. Having said this, growers have the ability to manipulate an artificial growing ecosystem to ensure that their cannabis plants flower at a specific time. After cannabis plants have entered the flowering phase and are subjected to a schedule of 12 hours of darkness followed by 12 hours of light, they will begin to produce flowers at an increased rate.

Foliage

The leaves, or more generally, the green part of a cannabis plant.

Foliar Feed

Misting fertilizer solution, which is absorbed by the foliage of a cannabis plant.

Foot-Candle (or FC)

One Foot-Candle (or FC) is equal to the amount of light that falls on one square foot of surface located one foot away from one candle.

Fresh Frozen

Cannabis plant matter that has been cryogenically frozen immediately after harvest, preserving terpenes and the characteristics of the living plant.

Fritted

To fuse or embed nutrients with a glass compound, Fritted Trace Elements (or FTE) is long-lasting and do not easily leach out of the substrate.

Full Melt

A concentrate (typically hash) that bubbles and melts at the slightest application of heat. Most consumers like full melt products as it often mean bigger, clearer bubbles, and a higher quality hash.

Fungicide

A product that destroys or inhibits fungus on cannabis plants.

Fungus

A lower plant (lacking chlorophyll) that may attack cannabis plants - mold, rust, mildew, mushrooms, and bacteria are fungi.

Fuse

An electrical safety device made of a metal that melts and interrupts the circuit when overloaded.

Fuse Box

Electrical circuit box containing circuits controlled by fuses.

G

Gametes

A reproductive cell specialized for fertilization, having the haploid number of chromosomes - a mature pollen grain or ovule capable of fusing with a gamete of the opposite sex to produce the embryo.

Ganja

Another widely-accepted name for cannabis. The term ganja is often attributed to Rastafarian culture, but it is in fact the Hindi word for hemp, introduced to Jamaica by Indian indentured servants. Lately, its usage in western society has become incredibly mainstream.

Gasper

A term for a hand-rolled joint or cigarette. It's an older term, usually used by older generations, but it references the sensation that you're gasping for breath after taking a particularly large hit off a joint, spliff, or cigarette. It usually refers to something rolled with particularly cheap and/or low-quality product.

Gene

Part of a chromosome that influences the development and the potency of a cannabis plant - genes are inherited through sexual propagation.

Gene Pool

Collection of possible gene combinations in an available population.

Genetic Makeup

The genes inherited from parent cannabis plants - genetic makeup is the most important factor dictating vigor and potency.

Genotype

The specific genetic makeup of an individual, which determines the physical appearance of that individual cannabis plant.

Germination

It is the process by which a cannabis plant grows from a seed. Environmental conditions like warmth, moisture, and air trigger the root that is curled up inside the seed to sprout in search of more moisture. Growing mediums that are too soggy will cut off the oxygen supplies making the seeds to drown. Well-nurtured cannabis seeds germinate within 2 to 7 days.

Germplasm

The sum total of the genetic or hereditary materials in a species.

Gibberellin

A class of cannabis plant growth hormone used to promote stem elongation - gibberellic acid is a form of gibberellin.

Girdling

Removing a strip of bark or crushing the stem of a cannabis plant - girdling limits the flow of nutrients, water, and plant products, which can kill the plant.

Glandular Trichome

A cannabis plant hair gland which secretes resin.

Glass

Glass is the material most commonly used when smoking cannabis out of a pipe. Glass pipes can vary in color and size and can be decorated with unique designs and patterns. Glass pipes can cost quite a lot of money and sometimes break easily, but are considered much more desirable than metal pipes, which can get uncomfortably hot and give extremely harsh hits, or wooden pipes, which will not last as long and can get permanently stained with an unpleasant flavor.

Green

Another popular slang term for cannabis, the name 'green' is often used as a sort of code.

Green Crack

Although it’s just cannabis, this strain gets its name from its keen potency. There are currently two types of Green Crack - the Sativa-dominant strain comes from Skunk #1, while the Indica-dominant one is purported to be derived from an Afghani Indica.

Green Lacewing

Insect that preys on aphids, thrips, whiteflies, etc. and their larva and offspring.

Green Out

When someone smokes too much cannabis and gets way too high. Roughly equivalent to blacking out, except with cannabis instead of liquor. Most often the person who has greened out will become very quiet. In some situations, they may even vomit. If it’s bad enough, the person who has greened out might fall asleep and wake up high the next day. Generally not a good experience, though it does wear off after a while.

Greenhouse

A heated structure with transparent or translucent walls and ceiling which offer some environmental control to promote cannabis plant growth.

Grinder

This refers to a device that is used to break down cannabis buds to create a fine texture, so it burns evenly for better airflow and trichome exposure. A grinder has two halves with pegs aligned systematically to ensure the plant material is shredded effectively when turned. Grinders come in various types of materials like metal, acrylic, aluminum or wood. They are available in different shapes and sizes with the cylindrical shape being the most common.

Guano

Dung from birds, high in organic nutrients - seabird guano is noted for being high in nitrogen, and bat guano is high in phosphorus.

Gynoecious

An individual cannabis plant having all pistillate flowers - in reference to a population, all-female.

H

Halogen

Any of the non-metallic elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine existing in a free state - halogens are enclosed within the arc tube of a Metal Halide (MH) lamp.

Hardening-Off

Gradual adaptation of indoor or greenhouse plants to an outside environment.

Hash

Hash or hashish is the resin collected from the flowers of the cannabis plant and a colloquial term. The active ingredient in the hash is Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and hash can be smoked in joints or out of bongs or pipes. The effects of a high caused by smoking hash include sleepiness, pain relief, a feeling of relaxation, and increased appreciation of music and food. Most of the THC from hash is absorbed and catalyzed within the first few seconds of entry into the body, so holding smoke into the lungs for a longer amount of time will not hasten the achieved high.

Hash Oil

Hash oil or cannabis oil is obtained by the extraction of cannabis or hashish. It is a concentrated form of the plant containing many of its resins and terpenes - in particular, Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC), Cannabidiol (or CBD), and other cannabinoids. There are a variety of extraction methods, but most involve a solvent such as butane or ethanol. Hash oil is usually consumed by smoking, vaporizing or eating but sometimes other methods are employed. Hash oil is sometimes sold in cartridges to be used with pen vaporizers.

Haze

A very popular Sativa strain, often stimulating creative behavior and energizing head highs. It’s thought to originate in various tropical regions of the world, specifically in Mexico, Colombia, and parts of South East Asia. Haze plants are some of the tallest growing varieties of cannabis, often reaching 20 feet (or six meters) tall. Because of its size, it often takes longer to harvest, which makes it one of the more difficult plants to grow. Haze is commonly crossbred with Indica strains to create award-winning strains like Northern Lights. Other popular strains of haze include Super Lemon Haze and XXX.

Head Shop

A retail outlet specializing in paraphernalia used for consumption of cannabis and tobacco and items related to cannabis culture and related countercultures. Products may include magazines (ex. about cannabis culture, cannabis cultivation, tattooing, and music), clothing, and home décor (ex. posters and wall hangings illustrating drug culture themes such as cannabis, jam bands like The Grateful Dead, psychedelic art, etc.). 

Heady Glass

It is a type of an artistic, high-quality glass pipe with unique design and specifications. It offers brilliant color schemes, visual effects and is made in such limited quantities making it extremely valuable. A heady glass gives its users advanced glassblowing techniques like reversals, wig wags, sandblasting, fuming, rettis, honey comb and worked sections etc. making it a one of a kind device.

Heat Cleaning

The process of excessively torching a nail or banger to remove any reclaim or burnt-on residual concentrate.

Heirloom

Refers to a local variety of cannabis that was taken from its native land and propagated in another geographic location while maintaining its original genetics. This means that the strain is pure, having never been crossed and always grown in its natural environment. The landrace strains are commonly named after their native regions (ex. Afghani, Thai, Colombian, Hawaiian, etc.) and the traces of these native strains are sometimes detectable in the names of its crossbred progeny.

Hemp

Cannabis that is typically cultivated for its industrial uses such as oils and topical ointments, as well as fiber for clothing, paper, rope, building materials, and more applications which don’t involve intoxication. As hemp is naturally a high-growing plant, it is usually grown outdoors to maximize its size and yield. The focus is not on producing buds but on building the length of the stalk for fiber production. It has very low levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC), typically less than 0.3%, but much higher Cannabidiol (or CBD) concentrations.

Hemp Hurds

Hemp hurds, also known as shives or hemp wood, are an agricultural product made from hemp. Hurds consist of the woody inner portion of the hemp stalk, broken into pieces and separated from the fiber in the processes of breaking and scutching and correspond to the shives in flax, but are coarser and usually softer in texture. Hurds have traditionally been a by-product of fiber production.

Hemp Oil

Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavor. It should not be confused with hash oil, a tetrahydrocannabinol-containing oil made from the Cannabis flower, hailed by some for its medicinal qualities.

Hempcrete

Hempcrete or Hemplime is bio-composite material, a mixture of hemp hurds (shives) and lime (possibly including natural hydraulic lime, sand, pozzolans) used as a material for construction and insulation. It is marketed under names like Hempcrete, Canobiote, Canosmose, and Isochanvre. Hempcrete is easier to work with than traditional lime mixes and acts as an insulator and moisture regulator. It lacks the brittleness of concrete and consequently does not need expansion joints. The result is a lightweight insulating material ideal for most climates as it combines insulation and thermal mass.

Herb

Slang term for cannabis and refers to the many similarities between cannabis and other popular cooking herbs and spices. It helps the comparison that cannabis happens to be a green, leafy substance that just so happens to be delicious when added to pasta, pizza, or any dinner dish that could benefit from liberal spicing.

Hermaphrodite

Having flowers of both sexes on the same cannabis plant - are more correctly referred to as 'intersex.'

Hertz (or Hz)

A unit of frequency that cycle one time each second - a home with a 60-hertz Alternating Current (or AC) current cycles 60 times per second.

Heterosis

Hybrid vigor such that an F1 hybrid falls outside the performance range of cannabis parents with respects to some character or characters - usually applied to size, the rate of growth or general vigor.

Heterozygous Loci

Regions along homologous chromosomes that have different alleles.

High-Cannabinoid Full Spectrum Extract (or HCFSE)

Created through hydrocarbon extraction with an emphasis on cannabinoid preservation.

High-Intensity Discharge (or HID) Lamp

Type of lamp used in many indoor grow rooms, High-Intensity Discharge (or HID) lamps are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. Various types of chemistry are used in the arc tubes of HID lamps, depending on the desired characteristics of light intensity, correlated color temperature, Color Rendering Index (or CRI), energy efficiency, and lifespan.

High-Terpene Full Spectrum Extract (or HTFSE)

Created through hydrocarbon extraction with an emphasis on terpene preservation.

Homologous Chromosomes

Members of paired chromosomes in non-gametic cells and homologous chromosomes are similar in size, shape, and function - one of each chromosomal pair is derived from the male plant, the other from the female.

Honeydew

A sticky honey-like substance secreted onto foliage by aphids, scale, and mealy bugs.

Hood

The reflective cover of a High-Intensity Discharge (or HID) lamp.

HOR

The abbreviation stamped on some High-Intensity Discharge (HID) bulbs meaning they may be used in a horizontal position.

Hormone

A chemical substance that controls the growth and development of a cannabis plant - root-inducing hormones help the clones root.

Horticulture

The science and art of cultivating cannabis plants.

Hose Bib

Water outlet usually found outdoors that contains an on/off valve.

Hostile Environment

An environment that is unfriendly and inhospitable to pests and diseases, and/or cannabis plants.

Hot Box

To hot box a location, you must smoke so much cannabis inside that the air is literally filled with smoke. A proper hot box works best inside of small spaces, such as a closet or bathroom.

Humus

Dark, fertile, partially decomposed plant or animal matter - humus forms the organic portion of the soil.

Hybrid

An offspring from two plants of different breeds, variety, or genetic make-up. Hybrid strains of cannabis refer to those in between the two ends of the genetics spectrum - the subspecies Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa. 

Hybrid Vigor

Greater strength and health or faster rate of growth in the offspring resulting from the cross-breeding of two gene pools.

Hydro

Short for hydroponic, this system is a plant-growing technique that does not require soil. All the plant's nutrients are delivered through nutrients in the water, as opposed to the conventional method of topsoil. The traditional topsoil-farming methods require lots of land and space, but a hydroponic system is much more efficient in terms of plant-to-space ratio. The term hydro can also be another synonym for cannabis, but only when the cannabis has been grown in a hydroponic system.

Hydrocarbon Extraction

This refers to an extraction process that utilizes hydrocarbon solvents such as butane, propane and hexane to separate the trichomes from the plant material. It is used to make a variety of cannabis concentrates. The process should be carried out in controlled environments as hydrocarbon solvents are volatile solvents and heavier than air hence tend to pool on the floor of a space that isn’t properly ventilated, resulting in dangerous explosions when ignited.

Hydrogen

Light, colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas - hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water.

Hydroponics

Hydroponics refers to a growing medium that utilizes a soilless system to cultivate cannabis plants. The method involves placing the growing seedlings in a solution of water and nutrients enabling the grower to control the environment that the plants are grown in. With hydroponics, variables like pH, nutrient levels and temperature are easily controlled unlike a soil ecosystem that can be difficult to control plant’s environment.

Hygrometer

Instrument for measuring relative humidity in the atmosphere.

I

Ice Wax

Ice wax is a solvent-less bubble hash that is collected using ice and water to separate the trichomes or Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) from the frozen cannabis plant matter and then filtering it through screens of varying microns. It has a fine, grainy texture that looks a lot like beach sand. The product melts fully leaving behind little to no residual residue, indicating very little cannabis plant matter in its structure.

Inbreeding

The process of breeding cannabis solely within the seed lot with no external pollen inputs.

Indica

It refers to one of the three species of cannabis namely Sativa, Ruderalis and Indica. The plant traces its origin from the Hindu Kush Mountains in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Majority of the Indica plants are small with broad leaves and produce a lot of buds. The plant has higher levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) compared to Cannabidiol (or CBD) and has many medical benefits like relaxing muscles, treating chronic pain and helping with sleep due to its sedative properties.

Indica-Sativa Hybrid

This refers to the crossbreed of an Indica and Sativa, some hybrids contain an equal mix of the two species, providing an overall head and body high. Other hybrids are dominated by either Sativa or Indica. Indica dominant strains have higher Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) levels while Sativa dominant strains are higher in the Cannabidiol (or CBD).

Indoleacetic Acid (or IAA)

A cannabis plant hormone that stimulates growth.

Induce

To effect, cause, or influence via stimulation - a 12-hour photoperiod stimulates flowering in cannabis plants.

Inductive Photoperiod

Day length required to stimulate flowering in cannabis plants.

Inert

A substance that will not chemically reactive - inert growing mediums make it easy to control the chemistry of the nutrient solution.

Inflorescence

A cluster of cannabis flowers.

Infused Product

This refers to a product that is combined with concentrated cannabis oils during its preparation. It includes edibles, beverages, botanicals, tinctures, kitchens, and more. Edibles are the most common form of infused products and if not careful could result in consumption beyond the normal levels.

Insecticide

A product that kills or inhibits insects.

Intensity

Amount or strength of light energy per unit or area - intensity decreases the further away from the source.

Intersex

A single individual cannabis plant expressing both staminate and pistillate flowers.

Introgress

To incorporate or add a trait to a given population, without altering the significant characteristics of the population.

Isopropyl Alcohol

A solvent used for creating cannabis concentrates, as well as cleaning bongs and rigs, isopropyl alcohol has a quick evaporation rate and can be used to make mid-grade concentrates.
J

Jack Herer

A Sativa strain that gets its name from the eponymous cannabis and hemp activist and author of 'The Emperor Wears No Clothes,' Jack Herer was created by the Sensi Seed Bank by fusing Northern Lights #5 and Shiva Skunk with a Haze hybrid.

Jacket

Protective outer bulb or envelope of the High-Intensity Discharge (or HID) lamp.

Jelly Hash

It is one of the most potent types of hash available in the market today, a jelly hash is made of a combination of potent bubble hash and high-quality hash or honey oil. The recommended proportions contain eight parts hash and one part cannabis oil (hash oil) usually extracted with butane.

Joint

A joint is a rolled cigarette filled with cannabis. Typically speaking, one would roll a joint with very thin clean-burning rolling papers. This specific way to smoke bud is popular because it’s easy to roll, portable and effortless to discard. There are countless ways to roll a spliff, doobie, cone, etc., including smaller pinners and self-described fatties.
K

Kaya

Kaya literally means 'beautiful,' but in Jamaica 'Kaya' is the common term for 'cannabis' or 'ganja.' Kaya was made famous worldwide by the infamous reggae music star Bob Marley who, in addition to signing about Kaya in a vast number of his songs, even had one of his top albums titled 'Kaya.'

KGB

Super-potent cannabis strain, KGB is an acronym for 'Killer Green Buds.'

Kief

Kief, also known as keef or kif, refers to the resinous trichomes of cannabis that may accumulate in containers or be sifted from loose, dry cannabis flower with a mesh screen or sieve. Kief contains a much higher concentration of psychoactive cannabinoids, such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC), than that of the cannabis flowers from which it is derived. Traditionally, kief has been pressed into cakes of hashish for convenience in storage but can be vaporized or smoked in either form. After the kief is collected it is heated and pressurized, which turns it into hashish.

Kilowatt Hour (or kWh)

A measure of electricity used per hour - a 1,000-watt High-Intensity Discharge (HID) uses one kilowatt per hour.

Kind

It is a term for high-quality bud with high levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC). Usually, it’s very effective even with small dosages and often people use the term 'kind bud' to refer to a very pungent, high-THC, quality cannabis flower.

Kush

Kush is a strain of Cannabis Indica and the origins are from landrace plants mainly in Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan and North-Western India with the name coming from the Hindu Kush mountain range.
L

Landrace

A landrace refers to a local variety of cannabis that has adapted to the environment of its geographic location. This accounts for genetic variation between landrace strains, which have been crossbred to produce the cannabis variety we see today. Landrace strains are oftentimes named after their native region, like Afghani, Thai, and Hawaiian, and traces of landraces are sometimes detectable in the names of their crossbred descendants.

Leach

To dissolve or wash out soluble components of soil by heavy watering.

Leggy

A plant that is abnormally tall, with few leaves - usually caused by lack of light.

Licensed Facility

Refers to a cannabis business that is fully licensed and compliant in its jurisdiction of operation.

Life Cycle

A series of growth stages through which cannabis must pass in its natural lifetime - the stages are a seed, seedling, vegetative, and flowering.

Light Mover

A device that moves a High-Intensity Discharge (or HID) lamp back and forth or in a circular path across the ceiling of a grow room to provide more balanced lighting.

Light-Emitting Diode (or LED)

A growing light used for growing cannabis, with may possess the ability to produce bigger yields while staying cool and using a reasonable amount of electricity due to their low heat emissions. They have wide light spectrums with focused beams that result in greener and healthier looking buds. It’s ideal for supplemental greenhouse lighting.

Limbing

Cutting off lover, secondary plant branches to encourage primary growth.

Lime

Calcium compounds such as dolomite or hydrated lime that determine or alter soil pH level.

Litmus Paper

Chemically sensitive paper used to indicate pH levels in colorless liquids.

Live Resin

Live resin refers to fresh, frozen cannabis flowers that are used in the extraction of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) concentrates only hours after being cut down from the main plant. The process results in extracts with unique aroma and flavorful taste, being different from extracts made with buds that were dried and cured. Live resin captures and delivers a stronger and pure collection of cannabinoids and terpenes from the trichomes present on the buds and flowers. A live resin is thought to have the highest possible potential for medicinal and psychoactive effects.

Loam

Organic soil mixture of crumbly clay, silt, and sand.

Locus

A position on a chromosome where a specific gene is located.

Lumen

Measurement of light output, one lumen is equal to the amount of light emitted by one candle that falls on one square foot (or meter) of surface located one foot (or meter) away from one candle.

M

Macronutrient

One or all of the primary nutrients N-P-K (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, or Potassium) or the secondary nutrients magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca).

Manicure

Trim leaves and large stems from buds with scissors or fine pruners so the most Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) potent portion remains.

Marijuana

Marijuana, or marihuana, is a name for the cannabis plant and more specifically a drug preparation from it. 'Marijuana' as a term varies in usage, definition and legal application around the world. Some jurisdictions define 'marijuana' as the whole cannabis plant or any part of it, while others refer to 'marijuana' as a portion of the cannabis plant that contains high levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC). Some jurisdictions recognize 'marijuana' as a distinctive strain of cannabis, the other being hemp. The form 'marihuana' is first attested in Mexican Spanish; it then spread to other varieties of Spanish and to English, French, and other languages.

Marijuana Infused Product (or MIP)

It refers to products that are prepared with cannabis concentrates and are subject to different labeling requirements like the list of ingredients, their respective profiles, directions for use and a disclaimer.

Mary Jane

The term and fictional lady character of ‘Mary Jane’ is a play on the sound of the pronunciation of 'cannabis.' When cannabis was more taboo, using the term ‘Mary Jane’ was an undercover way of referring to the plant. However, as today’s culture grows and matures the taboo nature has dropped and the term has become so popular most everyone knows the reference.

Medical

In the cannabis industry, medical usually refers to cannabis grown in a regulated medical market and you usually buy it in a dispensary. Some jurisdictions, however, have systems that link patients with personal caregivers who provide medical cannabis, or that allow patients to simply grow their own medicine at home.

Medicated

Being 'medicated' is a term similar to being stoned or high. Most recently, the medical community has coined this term to help change the stigma surrounding the consumption of cannabis.

Meristem Pruning

Cutting away the cannabis plants' growth tips to encourage branching and limit height.

Micron

One-millionth (1/1,000,000) of a meter.

Micron Grade

Refers to the micron bag used to collect trichomes during bubble hash production - popular micron grades include 73u, 90u, and 140u.

Micron Screen

A small, finely perforated mesh screen used in the production of bubble hash.

Micronutrients

Trace elements necessary for plant health, including sulfur (S), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu).

Mist

Manufacture rain with a misting system or spray bottle.

Mites

Mites are common pests belonging to the spider family. The tiny pests attack the leaf of a cannabis plant resulting in yellowing, stippling, and weakening of the plants. Mites inhabit the underside of the leaf and suck out the life-giving sap of the plants. The leaves of these plants will be characterized with suck-hole marks and yellow patches from failure to produce chlorophyll. A mite infestation can result in disastrous results hence an early detection is key.

Moisture Meter

An electronic device that measures the moisture content of soil or a substrate at any given point.

Mold

It’s a type of fungus thriving in moist and warm conditions. It grows on a cannabis leaf in the form of multicellular thread-like structures called hyphae and when in excess could end up damaging the plant. Symptoms of excess fungi growth include leaf spots, blight, cankers, rot, and damping off among other reactions.

Monochromatic

Producing only one color, Low-Pressure Sodium (or LPS) lights are monochromatic.

Monoecious

Having a male (staminate flowers) and female (pistillate flowers) reproductive systems or flowers on the same plant.

Morphology

The study of the form and structure of animals and plants.

Mota

Mota or moto is Spanish slang for cannabis, similar to 'weed,' 'mary jane,' or 'bud.'

Mother Plant

A 'mother' is typically a large, female cannabis plant held in vegetative state and used for cutting (cloning) stock - a mother plant may be grown from seed or be a clone. Mother plants are what allow growers to produce more of a strain, they could take a half-dozen clones from one mother plant, grow those clones to fruition, and come harvest you have significantly more cannabis to sell than if you had only grown and harvested the mother plant. The loss of a mother plant could mean the potential loss of an entire genetic line of cannabis.

Mulch

A protective covering for the soil or compost, old leaves, paper, rocks, etc. - indoors, mulch keeps soil too moist and possible fungus could result from and outdoors mulch helps the soil retain and attract moisture.

Mutation

An inheritable change in genetic material.

Mycelium

The mass of strands that form the root-like part of fungi, often submerged in soil or a host body.

N

N-P-K

Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are the three major cannabis plant nutrients.

Nail

This tool works in conjunction with a dabbing rig, the nail is heated with a torch to vaporize cannabis hash oil when it is applied, which allows for it to be smoked. It is called a nail due to its resemblance of a nail with a thick head. When you heat the nail it will turn red, then you must allow it to cool just until the red color fades and place the cannabis on the head in order to heat and vaporize your smokables.

Nanometer (or nm)

One billionth of a meter (or 0.000000001 meter), nm is used as a scale to measure electromagnetic wavelengths of light - color and light spectrums are expressed in nanometers.

Necrosis (or Necrotic)

Localized death of a cannabis plant part due to injury or disease.

Nectar

Not commonly used, nectar often refers to the process of making hash oil only from flower nugs, rather than trim.

Nitrogen (N)

An essential element for growing cannabis, it is one of the three major nutrients N-P-K.

Node

A joint on the stem or the position on the cannabis plant from which leaves, shoots, or flowers grow.

Nug

An individual bud of cannabis is often referred to as a 'nug,' a reference to a gold nugget.

Nug Run

Hash oil extracted from cannabis that is made of all high quality nugs. Normally, hash oil would be derived from the smallest of nugs and other forms of cannabis trimmings, leaving the largest bits of the flower to be smoked normally. Because of this distinction from other hash oils, nug run has a particularly strong effect and delicious flavor.

Nursery

A gardening business that grows plants for sale or experimentation - a nursery is a great place to gather information about horticulture.

Nutrient

Plant food, essential elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) is called 'N-P-K' for short as well as secondary and trace elements fundamental to sustaining plant life.

O

OG

OG is a term that’s now used to describe many strains, though the term originated to describe Southern California’s Ocean Grown Kush, which was quickly shortened to OG Kush. OG Kush grew quickly in fame and reputation. 

Ohms Power Law

A law that expresses the strength of an electric current: Volts x Amperes = Watts.

Oil

Cannabis extraction from hash through alcohol, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), or any other solvent extraction process and is often considered the most potent form of cannabis due to its high Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) content. Oil can be consumed through dabbing, oral consumption, vaporization, or smoking. 

One-Hitter

A 'one-hitter' is a narrow pipe with a small bowl size for holding enough cannabis for just about one hit. It is a great pipe for those starting out in smoking cannabis, but it also is valued by seasoned consumers since it is light, portable and can easily be used as an on-the-go smoking tool.

Open Blasting

Usually conducted in a glass or metal tube, open blasting is the process of solvent-based extraction done without a closed-loop system.

Open Pollination

Pollination that occurs naturally, as opposed to controlled pollination, no effect of selection from human interference.

Optimum

The most favorable condition for growth and reproduction or peak production when growing cannabis

Organic

Made of, derived from, or related to living organisms - growers of organic cannabis use fertilizers and insect control methods of animal or vegetable origin - unaltered rock powders are also considered organic.

Osmosis

The equalizing movement of fluids through a semi-permeable membrane, such as in a living cell.

Outbreeding

Breeding between individual cannabis plants that are not closely related.

Overload

An electrical circuit that uses more than 80 percent of its potential is overloaded - a 20 amp circuit drawing 17 amps is overloaded.

Ovule

An egg which contains the female genes and is found within the plant ovary - when fertilized, an ovule will grow into a seed.

Oxygen

Tasteless, colorless, odorless, element - cannabis plant roots need oxygen in the soil in order to grow.

P

Pakalolo

Yet another iteration of cannabis, Pakalolo is the Hawaiian term for cannabis. You'll likely hear it most on tourist beaches and among certain crowds that have adopted the word because of its unique linguistic composition.

Papers

Short for 'rolling papers,' one of the essential ingredients used in joint- and spliff-crafting. Papers can be made from various materials, including wood pulp, hemp, flax, and rice straw.

Paraphernalia

Paraphernalia most commonly refers to a group of apparatus, equipment, or furnishing used for consuming cannabis.

Parasite

Organism that lives on or in another host organism without benefiting the host - fungus is a parasite.

Parts-per-Million (or PPM)

The standard measurement of nutrition content, residual solvents, as well as other contaminants such as mold and pesticides found within cannabis products.

Passive

Hydroponic system that moves the nutrient solution through absorption or capillary action.

Pathogen

A disease-causing micro-organism, especially bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

Peat

Partially decomposed vegetation (usually moss) with slow decay due to extreme moisture, cold, and acidic conditions.

Pelican Case

A special carrying case for dab rigs or other valuable fragile objects.

Percolator

A percolator, also simply known as a 'perc,' is a special glass design that increases water filtration inside of a bong, bubbler, or other water pipes by adding an additional chamber for the smoke to be filtered through. There are many different types of percolator common, but they all serve to improve the water filtration process so your cannabis bong hit is as smooth as possible.

Perennial

A plant, such as a tree or a shrub, which completes its life cycle over several years.

Perlite

Amendment of sand or volcanic glass expanded by heat, which aerates the soil or growth medium.

pH

A scale from 0 - 14 that measure a growing medium's acid to alkaline balance - a pH of 7 is neutral, lower numbers indicate increasing acidity, and higher numbers increasing alkalinity - cannabis grows best in a 6.5 to 8 pH range.

pH Tester

Electronic instrument or chemical used to measure the acid and alkaline balance in soil or water.

Phenotype

When it comes to growing cannabis, a plant’s phenotype is important because it determines a strain’s taste, effectiveness, look and more. Simply put, phenotype is a word used to successfully identify a plant’s inherent traits. Every strain has two parent plants, including a male and female. Like in most breeding of organisms, when a male plant fertilizes a female plant, the seeds that are produced will include genetic phenotypes from both plants. Because people like varying traits from different strains, growers can make a specific strain based on those preferred characteristics.

Phosphor Coating

Internal fluorescent bulb coating that diffuses light and affects various color outputs.

Phosphorus (P)

One of the three primary macronutrients that promote root and flower growth in cannabis plants.

Photoperiod

The relationship between the length of light and dark in a 24-hour period - affects the growth and maturity of cannabis.

Photosynthesis

The building of chemical compounds (carbohydrates that plants need for growth) from light energy, water and carbon dioxide (or CO2).

Phototropism

The environmental response movement of a cannabis plant toward or away from a light source.

Phyllotaxy

The arrangement of leaves on a stem and the principles that govern such arrangement, phyllotactic spirals form a distinctive class of patterns in nature.

Phytotron

A phytotron is an enclosed research greenhouse used for studying interactions between cannabis plants and the environment. It was a product of the disciplines of cannabis plant physiology and botany.

Pinner

A pinner is a thin joint rolled tightly with a small amount of cannabis. If one is low in cannabis content but still wants to roll the last bit of the supply, it results in a pinner. Some use the term to refer to the lowest quality cannabis.

Pistil

Pistils are part of a female plant’s anatomy. On cannabis, it’s identified as the little hair-like extensions on the flowers that range in color from white to red to darker orange-brown. When plants are going to be fertilized, the pistil acts to collect the male pollen. When plants are left unfertilized, the pistils change and can be indicators of plant ripeness.

Pistillate

Female cannabis plant, having pistils but no functional stamens.

Pollen

Fine, yellow, dust-like microspores containing male genes.

Pollen Sack

Male flowering that contains pollen.

Pollination

The transfer of male pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same or a different flower to fertilize ovules which produce seeds.

Polyhybrid Cross

A hybrid plant crossbred for more than one trait.

Polyvinyl Chloride (or PVC) Pipe

Plastic pipe that is easy to work with, readily available, and used to transport liquid and air.

Pot

Pot is a slang term for cannabis intended for use as a psychoactive drug or a medication. The word came into existence as a shortening of the Spanish potiguaya or potaguaya (a wine or brandy with steeped cannabis buds). Pot also goes by the names of cannabis, ganja, weed, reefer etc.

Potassium (K)

One of the macronutrients necessary for plant life.

Potbound

Root system that is bound, stifled or inhibited from normal growth by a too-small container.

Potent

Capable of wielding strong physiological or chemical effects - cannabis rich in cannabinoids that provides a desirable effect.

Powdery Mildew

Powdery mildew is a white powdery growth that forms on the surface of the cannabis leaves. The fungus first appears as small bumps on the upper side of the affected leaves, and if left unchecked it can extend to the petioles, stems and finally the buds, completely destroying the resin and crippling the plant entirely. Also known as Oidium or White Mold, the pest affects both indoor and outdoor cannabis. It is necessary for farmers to take preventative measures from the beginning to keep powdery mildew at bay.

Power Surge

Interruption or change in the flow of electricity.

Pre-Roll

A pre-roll refers to a pre-formed joint or blunt that is made beforehand and sold in medical dispensaries and retailer stores. The ready-made smokeables come in handy for consumers who like joints but are not good with the rolling process.

Pre-Run

A term for cannabis flower, before it’s been processed and turned into oil.

Predatory Insect

Beneficial insect or parasite that hunts down and devours harmful insects.

Pressed Hash

Pressed hash refers to the compressed resin of the female cannabis plant that is obtained through the application of heat and pressure on kief or dry sift hash to create small, dense blocks containing high concentrations of Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) and other cannabinoids. Pressed hash is consumed in much the same way as cannabis buds by smoking in a joint, pipe, bong or consuming it as an edible to offer similar effects. It can result in different colors ranging from dark yellow to brown or even black depending on the amount of plant and foreign material in the final product.

Primordia

Belonging to or characteristic of the earliest stage of development of an organism or a part.

Progeny

One born of, begotten by, or derived from another; an offspring or a descendant - offspring or descendants considered as a group.

Propagate

Sexual propagation produces seed by breeding male and female cannabis plant or asexual propagation to produce a plant by cloning.

Propane

A solvent used in the creation of Propane Hash Oil (or PHO), propane is often considered to produce higher quality concentrates than butane.

Pruning

Trimming branches or parts of the cannabis plant to strengthen those that remain or brings shape to the plant.

Pull ‘n’ Snap

Refers to hash oil with a very particular consistency. Snap is known to be neither too runny (wax), nor too solid (shatter) at room temperature. Because of its consistency existing somewhere between wax and shatter, it stretches when pulled before breaking off with a signature snapping sound.

Punnett Square

A tool developed by British geneticist, Reginald Punnett, used by biologists to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring.

Purging

The process of removing residual solvent from a cannabis concentrate.

Purps

Purps refers to any strain of cannabis that has a hue of purple. Purple color in cannabis is often equated with high-quality products because of popular and powerful strains such as Granddaddy Purple, Purple Urkle, and Purple Kush.

Pyrethrum

Natural insecticide made from the blossoms of various chrysanthemums.

Q

Q-Tip Tech

The process of cleaning your nail or banger with a q-tip after every use to maintain the freshness of the nail. Q-tipping should be conducted immediately after a dab is taken, while the nail is still hot.

Quartz Banger

A small, circular-shaped dish that attaches to the joint of a dab rig and can be heated to extremely high temperatures and used to vaporize concentrates.

QWISO (or Quick-Was Isopropyl Hash Oil)

When trichomes are stripped from the plant using alcohol (specifically isopropyl), the end product is hash oil, better known as 'QWISO' hash oil, or 'Quick-Was Isopropyl Hash Oil.'
R

Radicle

The part of a cannabis plant seedling that develops into a root, the root tip.

Rastafari

Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica. Scholars of religion and related fields have classified it as both a new religious movement and a social movement. There is no centralized authority in control of the movement and much heterogeneity exists among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas.

Re-Up

A term commonly used when the cannabis supply is running low and they need to go to their supplier to replenish their stocks. It can also be used as a general term for anyone who needs to buy more cannabis.

Reclaim

A byproduct slime that forms as the result of dabbing - it's essentially the resin-equivalent of an oil rig. You can smoke it, but, like resin, many people find it gross, smelly, and undesirable. It also looks pretty ugly in your uncleaned rig.

Recovery

Hydroponic system that reclaims the nutrient solution and recycles it.

Recreational

Recreational drug use is used to intentionally change one’s state of consciousness in order to produce feelings of elation. In the cannabis industry, recreational cannabis can be purchased at a recreational dispensary by anyone who is typically 21 years or older with a valid government-issued identification.

Reefer

A very broad slang term for cannabis or substances derived, it can be used to refer to the buds themselves but is also used to talk about a bowl, joint, or pipe. It's suspected the name originates with the Spanish word 'grifa,' which means a drug addict. The slang term was popularized through the movie 'Reefer Madness,' an infamous propaganda piece that attempted to demonize the cannabis plant and its users.

Rejuvenation

A mature plant, having completed its life cycle (flowering) that is stimulated by a new 18-hour photoperiod, to rejuvenate or produce new vegetative growth.

Relative Humidity

Ratio betwee the amount of moisture in the air and the greatest amount of moisture the air could hold at the same temperature.

Residual Solvent

Any remaining solvent contained within a concentrate post-extraction and purging, there are very strict limits on the amount of residual solvent allowed in cannabis products.

Resin

Resin may refer to the dark to light brown substance which is scraped off the surface of the trichomes of a cannabis plant. Further, it is widely used to describe the by-product that sticks by the sides of a bowl or other cannabis holding pieces after smoking the product over a period of time. Some people scrap the resin off their paraphernalia, roll it into balls and smoke. It consists of tar, ash, carbon, and less potent cannabinoids, and is considered unhealthy for smoking.

Resin Glands

Tiny pores that secrete resin in cannabis plants.

Retting

To moisten or soak in order to soften and separate the cannabis fibers from the woody tissue by partial rotting.

Rig

A unique pipe with a nail or skillet used to consume concentrates like wax or shatter. 'Dabbing' involves heating the nail on the rig to a specific temperature with a handheld torch, which evaporates a dab of concentrate when placed on the heated device. This form of consumption is different than smoking from a bowl or pipe with flower and produces a purer inhalation. Dabbing with a rig is quickly gaining popularity in the cannabis industry.

Roach

A roach is the end of a joint and is often too small to be smoked for fear of burning ones fingers. As a result, a roach is typically smoked with a roach clip or saved with other roaches to be used in another, stronger joint or added to a bowl. A roach is brown in color because of it high resin consistency due to smoke deposits settling each time it’s inhaled.

Roach Clip

An often metal clip used for holding the end of a joint (roach) as to prevent burning one's fingers.

Roguing

To weed out inferior, diseased, or undesirable plants from a crop, field, or population area.

Rolling Paper

A specialty paper used for making cigarettes (commercially manufactured filter cigarettes and individually made roll-your-own cigarettes), rolling papers are packs of several cigarette-size sheets, often folded inside a cardboard wrapper.

Root

The underground part of a cannabis plant - roots function to absorb water and nutrients as well as anchor a plant in the ground or to start rooting a cutting or clone.

Root Hormone

A root-inducing substance used for cloning cannabis plants.

Rosin Tech

A solventless extraction method involving the use of a hair straightener or flat iron to apply heat and pressure to cannabis. Using a piece of parchment paper to wrap your flowers or low-grade hash, you set the hair straightener to a specific temperature (opinions vary as to what temperature is best) and then press onto the parchment paper until the oils begin to extract. 

Rotary Evaporator

A piece of machinery used to evaporate and recover ethanol from ethanol-extracted cannabis concentrates.

Ruderalis

Ruderalis is one of the three species of cannabis besides Indica and Sativa. Originally, Ruderalis was considered as a wild breed of cannabis that can survive human activities and even adapt to extremely harsh conditions. The plant has small leaves and a short stature that only grows to about 2 feet (or .6 meter) tall hence the name dwarf cannabis. Ruderalis most notable characteristic is its ability to begin flowering based on changes in the plant instead of its environment (auto-flowering). The plant has low Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) concentrations making it less favorable for recreational or medical use. It’s native origin is traced back in Russia.
S

Salt

A crystalline compound that results from improper pH or toxic build-up of fertilizer - salt will burn plants, preventing them from absorbing nutrients.

Sativa

Sativa plants are tall with long, narrow leaves and loosely attached branches, Sativa is native to the temperate warm climates of Mexico, Central America, and Southeast Asia. It is usually grown outdoors due to its tall stature, going to heights of up to 18 feet (or 5.5 meters). Since its vegetation period is much longer, these plants typically produce a much higher yield than Indica strains. The plant has lower Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) to Cannabidiol (or CBD) levels, explaining its stimulating properties characterized by uplifting, euphoric and cerebral highs.

Schwag

Schwag is a word to describe low-quality cannabis that’s typically brown in color and very dry. Most often, a lot of seeds and stems will need to be removed before smoking the actual cannabis. Even then, schwag is flavorless and will not be covered in trichomes, which is always a sign of low-quality cannabis.

Scion

The shoot (containing buds) that is used for grafting.

Screen

Used to prevent cannabis from falling through the hole at the bottom of a pipe or bong bowl. Especially useful if you’re putting a small amount of cannabis in the bowl, screens can be fashioned from household items such as aluminum foil. 

Screen of Green (or SCROG)

A growing method which involves training cannabis shoots onto a net, trellis, or chicken wire.

Scuff

To scrape and roughen the surface - seeds with a hard outer shell germinate faster when scuffed.

Sea-of-Green (or SOG)

Usually abbreviated as SOG, Sea-of-Green is a method of growing cannabis that forces the plants to mature early to get the best yields possible. The plants get into the flowering phase after only two weeks of vegetative growth, and are harvested much earlier than they would if they grew to full size. The method allows the growers to maximize their space by fitting more plants without sacrificing on the yield. The method involves switching the plants lighting to 12 hours on and12 hours off to initiate flowering. If started at the same time, the plants should create a green canopy that traps most of the light at the top level.

Seal-a-Meal

Airtight sealer for plastic baggies used to seal in the freshness of pungent cannabis.

Secondary Nutrients

Secondary nutrients are nutrients that slightly limit crop growth and are moderately required by plants. These nutrients are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Secondary nutrients are as significant as primary nutrients in plants, but they are needed in smaller quantities. They are necessary for the augmentation levels of roots and cells.

Seed

The mature, fertilized ovule of a pistillate plant, containing a protective shell, embryo, and supply of food - a seed will germinate and grow, given heat and moisture.

Seed Pod

A dry calyx containing a mature or maturing seed.

Seed-to-Sale Concentrates

Single source cannabis concentrates that have been created by a company that grows its own flower from seed.

Selfing

To fertilize with pollen from the same flower or cannabis plant; self-pollinating.

Senescence

The declining growth stage in a cannabis plant or plant part from its prime to death.

Sexual Propagation

Sexual propagation is the process in which male and female sex cells (gametes) from separate parents unite in the female plant to form what will eventually mature into a new, genetically distinct individual. This process occurs when pollen from a male (staminate) parent unites with an ovule within the ovary of a female flower to create an embryo. This embryo, when mature and fully developed, will become a seed.

Shake

Slang term for 'bunk,' lower growth or the least potent portion of harvest - small particles of cannabis broken off the main 'nug' inside a bag due to rough handling - many times, the shake is flaked or powder-like and used for cooking.

Shatter

Shatter is a type of concentrate that is believed to be the purest and most potent type of cannabis product. Shatter, or butane hash oil, is created through an extraction process that eliminates fats and lipids, it’s typically transparent and easily breaks into fragments. Users can add shatter to a bowl of flower or melt it and inhale the resulting smoke, known as dabbing.

Short Circuit

Condition that results when wires cross and form a circuit - a short circuit will trip breaker switches and blow fuses.

Shotgunning

Shotgunning is the act of taking a hit of cannabis from a joint, pipe, or other smoking apparatus, and blowing it directly into someone else’s mouth. The idea is they will then inhale the same smoke you inhaled. This is not to be confused with the beer-drinking term, in which you stab a hole in the bottom of a beer can and chug the beer with gravity’s help.

Sinsemilla

Sinsemilla is a term describing the cannabis plants that are not pollinated hence lacking seeds, if a female cannabis plant is not fertilized it will contain seedless pods with large amounts of resin resulting in a more potent cannabis. A sinsemilla strain is produced by removing the male flowers from existence before they release pollen grains, enabling the plant to focus all the seed producing energy into bud producing energy. 

Skin Up

A derivative of the word 'skins,' or papers, 'skinning up' is a euphemism for rolling a spliff.

Skunk

It refers to a hybrid of Sativa and Indica strains of cannabis that are distinguished by its powerful, pungent smell likened to a spray from a skunk. It is a unique, high-quality strain that delivers excellent yields, making it used in the breeding of more strains like Super Skunk, Early Girl, Northern Lights, and Jack Herer.

Smoking

The inhalation of smoke or vapors released by heating the flowers, leaves, or extracts of cannabis and releasing the main psychoactive chemical, Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC), which is absorbed into the bloodstream via the lungs.

Snipe

A joint or spliff rolled from the roaches of other joints or spliffs so nipes are usually a last resort method of getting stoned. The disgustingness of a snipe will depend on the quality of the roaches you find, but while there can be a noticeable difference between a bad snipe and a really bad snipe, there is no such thing as a good snipe. Avoiding them is recommended.

Soap

Used as a cleaning agent, wetting agent, or insecticide - all soap used in horticulture should be biodegradable.

Socket

Threaded, wired holder for a light bulb.

Soilless Mix

A growing medium made up of mineral particles such as vermiculite, perlite, sand, pumice, etc. - organic moss is often a component of a soilless mix.

Soluble

Able to be dissolved in liquid, especially water.

Solution

A mixture of two or more solids, liquids, or gases, often with water.

Solvent

A liquid in which something is dissolved to form a solution, in cannabis extraction, a solvent is a liquid used to separate the psychoactive compound Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) from the flower.

Solvent Recovery

The process of reusing solvent either by pumping it back into its tank, or evaporating and collecting it.

Solvent-Free

A recent term used to describe a hydrocarbon extraction that has been fully cleansed of all residual solvent, solvent-free has zero (0) Parts-Per-Million (or PPM) residual solvent but was still originally a solvent-based extraction.

Sour Diesel

Also known as Sour D, the origins of this fast-acting, the Sativa-like strain is widely debated - some say the blend is a mix of Mexican Sativa and Chemo, while others claim it was created from Chemdawg 91, Northern Lights, and some sort of Skunk phenotype. What’s not up for debate is the strain’s popularity among users looking for powerful cerebral and corporeal relief.

Spliff

A joint that is part tobacco and part cannabis, it uses tobacco paper distinguished by its thick texture and dark brown color. Smoking a spliff results in a mild high as one is consuming less bud that has been combined with nicotine. The term is also used to refer to a nicely rolled cannabis joint.

Sploof

A sploof is usually a hand-made gadget to try to mask the smell of cannabis smoke. Usually constructed out of plastic water bottles with holes stabbed through the bottom, a sploof is usually stuffed with dryer sheets. The idea is that you blow through the dryer sheets and smoke comes out on the other side smelling more like clean laundry than dank reefer. Unfortunately, they usually don’t work very well.

Sponge Rock

Large pieces of perlite, a light, mineral soil amendment.

Spore

Seed-like offspring of certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and some non-flowering cannabis plants.

Sprout

A shoot of a cannabis plant, as from a recently germinated seed or small, new growth of leaf or stem.

Square Feet (or Meters)

Length x width = square feet (or meters) - a measurement of area.

Stagnant

Motionless air or water - for healthy cannabis growth, water must drain and not become stagnant as well as you need good air circulation.

Stamen

The cannabis male floral organ, bearing the anther, which produces pollen to fertilize female flowers.

Staminate

Male, pollen-producing flower having stamens but no pistils.

Steamroller

A cylindrical pipe usually made from glass that is open on both ends with the bowl extending from the top near one end. The smoker covers one end with her hand while filling the pipe with smoke, then removes her hand to clear the chamber.

Sterilize

To make super clean by removing dirt, germs, and bacteria; disinfect pruning tools to avoid spreading disease.

Stigma

The tip of the cannabis flower's pistil, which receives the pollen.

Stipule

One of a pair of small, leaf-like appendages found at the base of the leaf-stalk of many cannabis plants.

Stomata

The tiny holes can be found on the underside of the cannabis leaf (and just about every other plant). They’re called 'stomata' and they require a microscope or at least a magnifying glass to see. Small mouth-like or nose-like openings on leaf underside, responsible for transpiration and many other life functions - the millions of stomata must be kept very clean to function properly.

Stoned

If you haven't figured it out by now, being stoned is a euphoric sensation you experience following the consumption of cannabis. It is a result of the cannabis plant's many psychoactive components, though mainly Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC). It is certainly possible to get uncomfortably stoned, but nobody has ever died from it.

Stoner Film

Stoner film is a subgenre of comedy films that revolve around the use of cannabis. Generally, cannabis use is one of the main themes and inspires much of the plot and they are often representative of cannabis culture.

Stoney

Being 'stoney' is a lot like being stoned, in fact, it pretty much just is being stoned, only maybe a little more 'after the fact.'

Strain

A cannabis strain is a particular kind of plant species, either in a pure or hybrid variety like Sativa or Indica found in both the recreational and medical arenas. Each strain is grown to increase certain traits of the plant, with names being chosen by the actual grower to mirror the strain’s color, taste, smell, origin or physical effect on the user. There are hundreds of strains available, with more being produced every day thanks to the many options to crossbreed. It’s important to note that the cannabis industry is trying to maintain some type of consistency between each strain, but unfortunately, many of them are misclassified or marketed improperly causing confusion for the dispensary owner or buyer.

Stress

A physical or chemical factor that causes extra exertion by plants, usually by restricting fluid flow to foliage - a stressed plant will grow poorly.

Substrate

The medium on which cannabis plants grow, like soil, soilless mix, rock, etc.

Sugar

The food product of a cannabis plant.

Sump

A reservoir that receives drainage; a drain or receptacle for hydroponic nutrient solutions used for growing cannabis.

Sungrown

Sungrown is used to describe the method of growing superior cannabis using the sun as the major light source instead of artificial lighting used in indoor and greenhouse cultivation that is associated with very high electrical use. Sungrown cultivation implies that photoperiod control is used to produce a higher quality of cannabis than what is commonly referred to as outdoor cannabis, which is a lower grade of cannabis that was grown without the intention or care of sungrown and is often allowed to flower in the fall with the natural cycle.

Super Bloom

A common name for fertilizer high in phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) that promotes cannabis flower formation and growth.

Super-Critical Botanical Extractor

An expensive piece of extraction machinery that uses carbon dioxide (or CO2) as the primary solvent to produce refined, calibrated, and high-quality results.

Swisher

Swisher refers to the cheap and popular cigar brand Swisher Sweets, which is often the most popular cigar bought when you want to smoke a cannabis blunt. Swishers are cheap and tasty, but not recommended if you actually want to smoke just a cigar.

Synthesis

Synthesis is the method used by cannabis plants to create crucial proteins and hormones, it is performed when plants combine light energy and chemical compounds through a sequence of biochemical reactions.
T

Taproot

A taproot is an anchoring root growing downward in a vertical orientation and they are the main root anchoring system that the feeding roots grow from. A taproot is usually a thick root that tapers gradually. Taproots are the thick primary root that normally grows straight down under the soil.

Taxonomy

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy.

Teflon Tape

Tape that is extremely useful to help seal all kinds of threaded pipe joints.

Tepid Water

Lukewarm water 70 - 80 F (21 - 27 C), always use tepid water around cannabis plants to facilitate chemical processes and ease the shock.

Terminal Bud

The terminal (apical) bud of a cannabis plant is the primary growing point located at the apex (tip) of the stem and is the dominant bud. The terminal bud can cause all the axillary (lateral) buds below it to remain dormant. Terminal buds contain a special tissue called the apical meristem.

Terpene

A large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects. They often have a strong odor and may protect the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores and by attracting predators and parasites of herbivores. Although sometimes used interchangeably with 'terpenes,' terpenoids (or isoprenoids) are modified terpenes as they contain additional functional groups, usually oxygen-containing and terpenes are hydrocarbons.

Terpene Distillation

The process of isolating and extracting terpenes directly from cannabis flowers through molecular distillation.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) is one of at least 100+ cannabinoids identified in cannabis. THC is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. With the chemical name, Tetrahydrocannabinol, the term THC also refers to cannabinoid isomers. 

Tetrahydrocannabivarol (or THCV)

Tetrahydrocannabivarol (or THCV) is a psychoactive chemical found in cannabis. As its name suggests, THCV is similar to Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) in molecular structure and psychoactive properties, but it provides a variety of pronounced and altogether different effects.

Thermostat

A device for regulating temperature, a thermostat may control a heater, furnace, or vent fan.

Three-Chambered Grinder

A cannabis grinder made up of three segments, a grinding segment, a flower collection segment with a metal screen, and a kief-collection segment.

Timer

An electrical device for regulating photoperiod, fan, etc., a timer is a must in all cultivation operations.

Tincture

A liquid form of cannabis, typically made from glycerin (sweeter) or alcohol (harsher), the majority of tinctures are flavored and distributed via an eyedropper under the tongue for faster absorption into the body. Some people relate tincture highs to that of an edible, but without consuming actual food. After taking a tincture directly, a user will typically feel its results in a shorter time period than that of consuming an edible.

Toke

The physical act of inhaling cannabis smoke, toking frequently refers to joints, blunts, spliffs, and any form of cannabis rolled in paper. However, it can also refer to glass pipes, one-hitters, and bongs, depending on the circumstances.

Topical

A cannabis-infused oil, cream, salve, lotion or balm applied on the skin to provide therapeutic benefits for pain and inflammation. It is preferred by people who would like to avoid the psychoactive effects associated with other cannabis products as it does not reach the bloodstream but only penetrates to the endocannabinoid. Topical is used to treat a variety of skin conditions, itching, muscle soreness, tension, arthritis, pain, and inflammation.

Torch

A tool that heats propane to produce a large, consistent flame, typically used to heat up a rig when consuming dabs. This unique way of smoking concentrates (wax, shatter, etc.) called dabbing, is dependent on heating the surface to the right temperature so as to fully dissolve the product upon contact. 

Toxic Life

The amount of time a pesticide or fungicide remains active or live.

Trainwreck

Bred from a cross between Aghani Indicas and, Mexican and Thai Sativas, this strain has a high Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) content and exudes aromas of lemon and pine.

Transformer

A device in the ballast that transforms electric current from one voltage to another.

Transpire

To give off water vapor and by-products via the stomata on cannabis leaves.

Transplant

Transplanting your cannabis plants can be one of the trickiest parts of growing your cannabis plants. Once your plants have established a stable root system, they are ready for a period of major foliage growth. If you don't transplant your plants in time they might get rootbound. Rootbound means that the roots have grown all the way around the edges and your plant will not grow any more until you transplant it to a larger container.

Tree

A slang term for cannabis that references the shape of certain buds, when trimmed, nugs of cannabis often look like little trees.

Treefer

This is one of many treasures that’s resulted from the great melting cannabis in culture - 'treefer' is a slang term for cannabis that combines the terms 'tree' and 'reefer.'

Trellis

A frame of small boards that trains or supports cannabis plants, a trellis is a framed screen or net with a lattice pattern. It can be positioned vertically or horizontally to maximize available grow space and light penetration in any cannabis garden. This allows the grower to dramatically increase yields.

Trichome

Trichomes are crystalized glands that produce resin on a cannabis plant. Often referred to as 'sticky little hairs,' these glands are not actually hairs or crystals (although they’re still very beautiful close-up). Instead, they’re specific parts of the plant that carry the majority of cannabinoids and cover the cannabis plants' major surfaces. Under a microscope, trichomes look like mini mushrooms, with each section providing certain value to the plant. The head is most valuable and is frequently turned into a quality sieve or water hash.

Trim

Trim is the leftover bits of cannabis leaf and smaller buds that you collect huge piles of when trimming a freshly-harvested plant. Trim can often be used to make extracts like hash because you usually end up with so much of it and it still contains many valuable cannabinoids - the natural concentration of cannabinoids in such ancillary parts of the cannabis plant, however, is just not as concentrated.

Trim Run

Trim run describes a concentrate made from the trimmings of a cannabis plant. Growers often make huge batches of trim run because they often are left with huge quantities of leaves, stems, and tiny nugs after harvesting a crop. Trim run, however, is still sufficiently potent for most people, and some producers have found that the difference between trim run and nug run (concentrate made from cannabis) is nearly negligible.

Triploid

Having three sets of chromosomes within each cell may contribute to increased vigor.

Tungsten

A heavy, hard metal with a high melting point that conducts electricity well, tungsten is used for a filament in tungsten halogen lamps.

U

Ultraviolet (or UV)

Light with very short wavelengths, out of the far blue visible spectrum and is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

V

Vacuum Oven

The most popular type of solvent purging equipment; uses heat and negative pressure to strip concentrate slurry of residual solvent.

Vape Pen

A smaller version of a regular vaporizer, it’s portable and typically uses pre-filled cartridges available in varying sizes and types of cannabis, including Sativas, Indicas, and Hybrids. In some variations, there is an option to fill the chamber with your own flower or concentrate. Vape pens and their sister product, e-cigarettes, have gained popularity within the world of cannabis because of its discreetness and lack of smell when used.

Vaporizer

A vaporizer is a device that functions by heating the flowers or oils to a specific temperature causing them to release an odorless vapor that is then inhaled directly. Studies have shown that vaporizers are a healthier alternative to smoking as the devices are designed to produce an inhalable vapor that preserves the active ingredients of cannabis without destroying the material which could lead to intake of harmful substances.

Variety

A distinct cannabis strain or phenotype.

Vascular

Referring to a cannabis plant's circulatory system which carries sap throughout the body of the plant.

Vector

An organism (as an insect) that transmits disease, a pathogen, or an organism that transmits genes, a pollinator.

Vegetative Stage

The vegetative state refers to the growing phase of the cannabis plants characterized by the establishment of a solid root system and full leaf development in preparation for the flowering stage. The vegetative cycle of a cannabis plant takes about 4 - 6 weeks depending on plant strain and the surrounding environment. Growing plants should have access to at least 18 hours of light in a 24-hour cycle to maximize photosynthesis to produce as much leafy foliage as possible. The vegetative stage is also an ideal time to get clones if you are interested in a particular strain.

Vending Machine

A cannabis vending machine is a vending machine for selling or dispensing cannabis. They are currently in use and some may be located in secure rooms in dispensaries. Some may be operated by employees after a fingerprint scan is obtained from the patient. 

Vent

An opening such as a window or door that allows the circulation of fresh air in cannabis cultivation.

Ventilation

Circulation of fresh air, fundamental to a healthy indoor garden, an exhaust fan creates ventilation.

Vermiculite

A soil amendment and medium for root cuttings, vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral and it undergoes significant expansion when heated. Exfoliation occurs when the mineral is heated sufficiently, and the effect is routinely produced in commercial furnaces. Vermiculite is formed by weathering or hydrothermal alteration of biotite or phlogopite

Vitamin B1

Vitamin that is absorbed by tender root hairs, easing transplant wilt and shock.

W

Washing Machine

A tool for making bubble hash that mechanically mixes the cannabis and ice mixture.

Water Hash

Also known as ice water hash or bubble hash, is a specific technique to separate Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) trichomes to isolate the resin in cannabis. Using micro screens, ice, and water, one can effectively strain out resin glands that are inherently more dense than water. Large quantities of pure resin can be removed from the plant material, water ice water separation is a cleaner method that doesn’t involve other solvents and allows for a more refined hashish.

Water Table

It refers to the underground surface within which the soil is saturated with water and optimum soil-air environment conditions should be maintained within the root zone in order to achieve good crop yields.

Wax

It is a general term used to refer to extracts that are solid, opaque and with a soft texture. In its preparation, cannabis buds are packed tightly into a tube and then blasted with butane (a highly flammable liquid) that separates the trichomes from the material resulting in a concentrated substance. It is available in different consistencies and variations like honeycomb, crumble, earwax, sugar etc. with the difference arising from the extraction and purging process used in each variety’s production. 

Waxes and Lipid Fats

Naturally occurring substances found within the cannabis plant; waxes and lipid fats are often removed during shatter concentrate production.

Weed

Another slang term for cannabis and it’s frequently used, specifically in reference to flower.

Wetting Agent

A compound that reduces the droplet size and lowers the surface tension of the water, making it wetter, so a liquid concentrate dish soap is a good wetting agent if it is biodegradable.

White Rhino

A cannabis strain boasting a high Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) content, the White Rhino strain is the offspring of White Widow and an anonymous North American Indica.

White Widow

White Widow is a balanced hybrid strain of Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa. White Widow is a cross between a Brazilian Sativa strain and a resin-heavy South Indian Indica. The buds are white colored, with a crystal resin. Users experience a powerful feeling of euphoria and energy breaks. White Widow is one of the most famous strains around the world.

Whole Plant

A term describing the product used during extraction and the whole plant is usually extracted as fresh-frozen to extract all the ‘live’ terpenes and cannabinoids.

Whorled Phyllotaxy

Three or more leaves or branches located at each node along the cannabis plant branches and stems, people often confuse the term whorled phyllotaxy with the condition, triploidy (a chromosomal anomaly).

Wick

The part of a passive watering system the nutrient passes up to be absorbed by the medium and roots, a passive hydroponic system uses a wick suspended in the nutrient solution.

Wilt

To become limp from lack of water or a cannabis plant disease or disorder.

Wire Ties

Paper-coated wire ties are excellent for tying down or training cannabis plants.

X

Xylem

Vascular tissue that transports water and minerals from the roots throughout the cannabis plant stems and leaves.

Z

Zero-Zero (or Hash)

Top-quality, first-sieve hash.

Zig-Zag

Zig-Zag is a brand of rolling papers that originated in France, the Zig-Zag brand produces primarily hand-rolled tobacco-related products such as cigarette rolling papers, cigarette tubes, and rolling accessories.