Medical Marijuana Glossary


Medical Marijuana Glossary

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A

Absorb

to draw or take in: Roots absorb water and nutrients

Acid

a sour substance: An acid or sour soil has a low pH

Active

a hydroponic system that actively moves the nutrient solution

Adobe

heavy clay soil that drains slowly: Adobe is not suitable for container growing

Adventitious Roots

roots that grow from unusual spots, as on the (stem) pericycle or endodermis of an older root - auxins may influence this type of growth

Aeration

to supply soil and roots with air or oxygen

Aeroponics

growing plants by misting roots suspended in air

Aggregate

a substrate that is of nearly uniform size and used for the inert hydroponic medium

Agronomically

having to do with the economics of agriculture

Alkaline

refers to soil, or any substance, with a pH over 7

Alkylation

a process in which an alkyl group is substituted or added to a compound

Alleles

two genes, each of which occupies the same position on two homogeneous chromosomes

Alternating Current (AC)

an electrical current that reverses itsdirection at regularly occuring intervals: Homes have AC

Amendments

can be either organic or mineral base: Amendments change the texture of a growing medium

Ampere (amp)

the unit used to measure the strength of an electric current: A 20-ampere circuit is overloaded when drawing more than 16 amps

Androecious

a plant having staminate (MALE)

Anemophilous

pollinated by wind-dispersed pollen

Annual

a plant that normally completes its entire life cycle in one year or less - cannabis is an annual plant

Arc Tube

container for luminous gases; houses the arc in an HID lamp

Asexual Propagation

reproducing using non-sexual means such as taking cuttings from a parent plant - will produce exact genetic replicas of the parent plant

Auxin

classification of plant hormones: Auxins are responsible for foliage and root elongation

B

Bacteria

very small, one-celled plants that have no chlorophyll

Bag Seed

the common term given seed of unknown origin that was found in a bag of cannabis

Ballast

a stabilizing unit that regulates the flow of electricity and starts an HID lamp - a ballast consist of a transformer and a capacitor

Beneficial Insect

a good insect that eats bad, marijuana-munching insects

Biodegradable

to decompose through natural bacterial action - substances made of organic matter can be broken down naturally

Biosynthesis

the production of a chemical compound by a plant

Bleach

household laundry bleach is used in a mild water solution to sterilize grow rooms and as soil fungicide

Blood Meal

high-nitrogen organic fertilizer made from dried

Bloom

to yield flowers

Bloom Booster

fertilizer high in phosphorus and potassium that increases flower yield and weight 

Bonsai

a very short or dwarfed plant

Bract

small spur-like foliage that grows from the stem at the point from which flowers emerge

Breaker Box

electrical circuit box having on/off switches rather than fuses: The main breaker box is also called a 'service panel'

Breed

to sexually propagate cannabis under controlled circumstances

Bud

1. a small, undeveloped stem or shoot 2. a collection of (flowering) calyxes on a branch

Bud Blight

a withering condition that attacks flower buds

Buffer

a substance that reduces that shock and cushions against fluctuations: Many fertilizers contain buffer agents

Bulb

outer glass envelope or jacket that protects the arc tube of an HID lamp

Bulbous Trichome

ball-shaped, resin-producing plant hair without a stalk

C

Callus

tissue made of undifferentiated cells produced by rooting hormones on plant cuttings

Calyx

the pod harboring male or female cannabis reproductive organs

Cambium

layer of cells which divide and differentiates into xylem and phloem and are responsible for growth

Cannabaceae

scientific family to which Cannabis (marijuana) and Humulus (hops) belong

Cannabichromene (CBC)

second most abundant cannabinoid in drug-type cannabis

Cannabidiol (CBD)

usually prolongs the high

Cannabinoid

a hydrocarbon unique to cannabis

Cannabinoid Profile

proportional ratio and levels of major cannabinoids found in cannabis being tested

Cannabis

scientific name for marijuana specifying genus

Capitate Stalked Trichome

resin-producing plant hair without a stalk, high in THC content

Carbohydrate

neutral compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, mostly formed by green plants: Sugar, starch, and cellulose are carbohydrates

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas in the air; necessary for plant life

Caustic

a substance that destroys, kills, or eats away by chemical activity

Cell

the base structural unit of plants: cells contain a nucleus, membrane, and chloroplasts

Cellulose

a complex carbohydrate that stiffens a plant: Outdoor stems contain more stiff cellulose than plants grown indoors

Centigrade

a scale for measuring temperature where 100 degrees is the boiling point of water, and 0 degrees is the freezing point of water

Chelate

combining nutrients in an atomic ring that is easy for plant to absorb

Chimera

a plant or organism with tissues from at least two genetically distinct parents

Chlorophyll

green photosynthetic matter of plants: Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of a cell and is necessary to photosynthesis

Chlorosis

the condition of a sick plant with yellowing leaving due to inadequate formation of chlorophyll: Chlorosis is cause by a nutrient deficiency

Chromosomes

microscopically small, dark-staining bodies visible in the nucleus of a cell at the time of nuclear cell division; the number in any species is usually constant - cannabis has 10 pairs of chromosomes

Circuit

a circular route traveled by electricity from a power source, through an outlet, and back to ground

Clay

soil made of very fine organic and mineral particles: Clay drains slowly and is not suitable for container gardening

Climate

the average condition of the weather in a grow room or outdoors

Clone

1. a rooted cutting of a plant 2. asexual propagation

CO2 Enrichment

used to augment grow room or greenhouse atmosphere to speed growth

Cola

Mexican and North American slang word for marijuana flow top: Cola in Spanish actually means tail

Colchicine

poisonous alkaloid from the autumn crocus, used in plant breeding to induce polypoid mutations

Cold

for cannabis, air temperatures below 50 F (10 C)

Cold Frame

an unheated outdoor structure usually clad in glass or clear plastic, used to protect and acclimatize seedlings and plants 

Color Spectrum

the band of colors (measured in nm) emitted by a light source

Color Tracer

a coloring agent that is added to many commercial fertilizers so the horticulturist knows there is fertilizer in the solution

Compaction

soil condition that results from tightly packed soil which limits aeration and root penetration

Companion Planting

planting garlic, marigolds, etc., along with cannabis to discourage pests

Compost

mixture of decayed organic matter, high in nutrients: Compost must be well-rotted before use

Core

the transformer in the ballast is often referred to as a core

Cotyledon

seed leaves, first leaves that appear on a plant

Creeper

marijuana high in CBD having psychoactive qualities that sneak up on smoker - highs usually last longer

Critical Day Length

maximum day length which will bring about flowering in cannabis

Cross-Pollination

fertilizing a plant with pollen from an unrelated individual of the same species

Crystal

1. appearance resin has when found on foliage 2. fertilizers often come in soluble crystals

Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM)

measures air velocity - ventilation or extraction fans are measured in the CFM of air they can move

Cubic Foot

Volume measurement in feet: width x length x height = cubic feet

Cultivar

a contraction of 'cultivated variety,' a variety of plant that has been intentionally created or selected; not naturally occurring

Cure

1. slow drying process that makes marijuana more pleasant and palatable to smoke 2. to make a sick plant healthy

Cuticle

thin layer of plant wax (cutin) on the surface of the aboveground parts of plants

D

Damping-Off

fungus disease that attacks young seedlings and clones causing stem to rot at base: Over-watering is the main cause of damping-off

Decompose

to rot or decay, etc., through organic chemical change

Dehumidify

to remove moisture from the air

Dehydrate

to remove water from foliage

Deplete

to exhaust soil of nutrients, making it infertile: Once a soil is used to grow a container crop, it is depleted

Desiccate

to cause to dry up: Insecticidal soap desiccates its victims

Detergent

liquid soap concentrate used: 1. as a wetting agent for sprays and water 2. pesticide, Note: detergent must be totally organic to be safe for plants

Diapause

a period of plant dormancy during which growth or development is suspended or diminished 

Dioecious

a population consisting of gynoecious and androecious plants

Dioecy

a condition where separate sexes occur on separate individuals; each plant displays a single gender

Direct Current (DC)

a continuous electric current that only flows in one direction

Disease

sickness of any kind

Dose

amount of fertilizer, insecticide, etc., given to a plant, usually in a water solution

Double Potting

a two-pot transplanting technique that minimizes root disturbances

Drainage

to empty soil of excess water - Good drainage: water passes through soil, evenly promoting plant growth and Bad drainage: water stands in soil, actually drowning roots

Drip (Irrigation) System

efficient watering system that employs a main hose with small water emitters (tiny holes) which meter out water one drip a time at regular, frequent intervals

Drip Line

a line around a plant directly under its outermost branch tips: Roots seldom grow beyond the drip line

Dry Ice

cold, white solid substance formed when CO2 is compressed and cooled: Dry ice changes into CO2 gas at room temperatures

Dry Soil Pocket

small portion of soil that remains dry after watering: Dry soil pockets may be remedied by adding a wetting agent (soap) to water and/or waiting 15 minutes between watering

Dry Well

drain hole filled with rocks, to receive drainage water

E

Electrode

a solid electric conductor used to establish electrical arc between contacts at either end of an HID lamp

Elongate

to grow in length: Cannabis stretches from three inches to a foot when flowering is induced

Embolism

bubble of air in the transpiration stream of a cutting; blocks uptake of water and nutrients

Embryo

a young plant, developing within the seed: In cannabis, an embryo is derived from a fertilized ovule

Emit

to give off, send out (as light or sound, etc.)

Encarsia Formosa

a parasitic wasp that preys on whiteflies

Envelope

outer protective bulb or jacket of a lamp

Epsom Salts

hydrated magnesium sulfate in the form of white crystalline salt: Epsom salts add magnesium to soil

Equinox

when sun crosses the equator and day and night are each 12 hours long: The equinox happens twice a year

Essential Oils

volatile oils that give plants their characteristic odor or flavor; contained in the secreted resins of plants

Ethane Methyl Sulfonate

a mutagenic chemical that causes changes at the DNA level; induces genetic mutations

Etiolation

growth of a plant in total darkness to increase the chances of root initiation

F

F1

first filial generation, the offspring of two P1 (parent) plants

F2

second filial generation, resulting from a cross between two F1 plants

Fan Leaves

large, fan-like marijuana leaves: Fan leaves are usually low in potency

Female

pistillate, ovule, and seed producing

Fertilize

1. to apply fertilizer (nutrients) to roots and foliage 2. to impregnate (unite) male pollen with female plant ovary

Fertilizer Burn

over fertilization; first, leaf tips brown (turn brown), then leaves curl

Flat

a shallow container used to start seedlings or clones

Flower

blossom, a mass of calyxes on a stem, top, or bud

Foliage

the leaves, or more generally, the green part of a plant

Foliar Feed

misting fertilizer solution, which is absorbed by the foliage

Foot-Candle (fc)

one fc is equal to the amount of light that falls on one square foot of surface located one foot away from one candle

Fritted

to fuse or embed nutrients with a glass compound: Fritted Trace Elements (FTE) is long lasting and do not easily leach out of substrate

Fungicide

product that destroys or inhibits fungus

Fungistat

product that inhibits fungus

Fungus

a lower plant (lacking chlorophyll) that may attack green plants: Mold, rust, mildew, mushrooms, and bacteria are fungi

Fuse

an electrical safety device made of a metal that melts and interrupts the circuit when overloaded

Fuse Box

Electrical circuit box containing circuits controlled by fuses

G

Gametes

a reproductive cell specialized for fertilization, having the hapliod number of chromosomes: a mature pollen grain or ovule capable of fusing with a gamete of the opposite sex to produce the embryo

Ganja

slang term for cannabis, from the Indian (Hindustani) word for marijuana

Gene

part of a chromosome that influences the development and the potency of a plant: Genes are inherited through sexual propagation

Gene Pool

collection of possible gene combinations in an available population

Genetic Makeup

the genes inherited from parent plants: Genetic makeup is the most important factor dictating vigor and potency

Genotype

specific genetic makeup of an individual, which determines the physical appearance of that individual

Germplasm

the sum total of the genetic or hereditary materials in a species

Gibberellin

a class of plant growth hormone used to promote stem elongation: Gibberellic acid is a form of gibberellin

Girdling

removing a strip of bark or crushing the stem of a plant - girdling limits the flow of nutrients, water, and plant products, which can kill the plant

Glandular Trichome

plant hair gland which secretes resin

GPM

gallons per minute

Green Lacewing

insect that preys on aphids, thrips, whiteflies, etc. and their larva and offspring

Greenhouse

a heated structure with transparent/translucent walls and ceiling which offer some environmental control to promote plant growth

Guano

dung from birds, high in organic nutrients: Seabird guano is noted for being high in nitrogen, and bat guano is high in phosphorus

Gynoecious

an individual plant having all pistillate flowers: in reference to a population, all-female

H

Halide

binary chemical compound of a halogen(s) with an electropositive element(s)

Halogen

any of the non-metallic elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine existing in a free state: Halogens are enclosed within the arc tube of a metal halide lamp

Hardening-Off

gradual adaptation of indoor or greenhouse plants to an outside environment

Hash Oil

solution of tetrahydrocannabinol with high THC content; made from cannabis

Hashish/Hash

a psychoactive drug formed of compressed resin heads of glandular trichomes shaken, washed, or rubbed from cannabis foliage

Hemp

fibrous cannabis low in THC, used to make menagerie of products from textiles to automobiles

Hermaphrodite

an individual having flowers of both sexes on the same plant - are more correctly referred to as 'intersex'

Hertz (Hz)

a unit of frequency that cycle one time each second: A home with a 60 hertz AC current cycles 60 times per second

Heterosis

hybrid vigor such that an F1 hybrid falls outside the performance range of the parents with respects to some character or characters: usually applied to size, rate of growth, or general vigor

Heterozygous Loci

regions along homologous chromosomes that have different alleles

High Intensity Discharge (HID)

this is the type of lamp used in many indoor grow rooms

Homologous Chromosomes

members of paired chromosomes in non-gametic cells; homologous chromosomes are similar in size, shape, and function - one of each chromosomal pair is derived from the male plant, the other from the female

Honeydew

a sticky honey-like substance secreted onto foliage by aphids, scale, and mealy bugs

Hood

the reflective cover of a lamp

HOR

the abbreviation stamped on some HID bulbs meaning they may be burned in a horizontal position

Hormone

chemical substance that controls the growth and development of a plant: Root-inducing hormones help clones root

Horticulture

the science and art of cultivating plants

Hose Bib

water outlet usually found outdoors that contains an on/off valve

Hostile Environment

environment that is unfriendly and inhospitable to pests and diseases

Humus

dark, fertile, partially decomposed plant or animal matter: Humus forms the organic portion of the soil

Hybrid

an offspring from two plants of different breeds, variety, or genetic make-up

Hybrid Vigor

greater strength and health or faster rate of growth in the offspring resulting from the cross-breeding of two gene pools

Hydrogen

light, colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas: Hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water

Hydroponics

growing plants in nutrient solutions without soil, usually in an inert soilless mix

Hygrometer

instrument for measuring relative humidity in the atmosphere

I

IAA

Indoleacetic acid, a plant hormone that stimulates growth

IBL

inbred line

Inbreeding

the process of breeding solely within the seed lot with no external pollen inputs

Induce

to effect, cause, or influence via stimulation: a 12-hour photoperiod stimulates flowering

Inductive Photoperiod

day length required to stimulate flowering

Inert

a substance that will not chemically react - inert growing mediums make it easy to control the chemistry of the nutrient solution

Inflorescence

a cluster of flowers

Insecticide

a product that kills or inhibits insects

Intensity

the amount or strength of light energy per unit or area: Intensity decreases the further away from the source

Intersex

a single individual expressing both staminate and pistillate flowers

Intersexual

having sexual characteristics of both the typical male and typical female plants

Introgress

to incorporate or add a trait to a given population, without altering the significant characteristics of the population

J

Jacket

protective outer bulb or envelop of lamp

K

Kif

Moroccan word for cannabis plants and flowers: It is also the Moroccan term for a mix of tobacco and cannabis which is smoked - kif does not mean Moroccan hash

Kilowatt Hour (kWh)

measure of electricity used per hour: A 1000-watt HID uses one kilowatt per hour

L

Landrace

is a (wild) cannabis variety that is not improved by humans

Leach

to dissolve or wash out soluble components of soil by heavy watering

Leggy

plant that is abnormally tall, with few leaves - usually cause by lack of light

Life Cycle

a series of growth stages through which cannabis must pass in its natural life-time: The Stages are seed, seedling, vegetative, and floral

Light Mover

a device that moves a lamp back and forth or in a circular path across the ceiling of a grow room to provide move balanced light

Limbing

cutting off lover, secondary plant branches to encourage primary growth

Lime

calcium compounds such as dolomite or hydrated lime that determine or alter soil pH level

Litmus Paper

chemically sensitive paper used to indicate pH levels in colorless liquids

Loam

organic soil mixture of crumbly clay, silt, and sand

Locus

a position on a chromosome where a specific gene is located

Lumen

measurement of light output - one lumen is equal to the amount of light emitted by one candle that falls on one square foot of surface located one foot away from one candle

M

Macronutrient

one or all of the primary nutrients N-P-K (nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium) or the secondary nutrients Mg (magnesium) and Ca (calcium)

Manicure

trim leaves and large stems from buds with scissors or fine pruners so the most THC-potent portion remains

Marijuana

cannabis; illegal drug in many countries, inhaled or ingested for its THC content

Meristem Pruning

cutting away the growth tip to encourage branching and limit height

Micron

one-millionth of a meter

Micronutrients

trace elements necessary for plant health, including S, Fe, Mn, B, Mb, Zn, and Cu

Millimeter

0.04 inch

Mist

manufacture rain with a spray bottle

Moisture Meter

electronic device that measures the moisture content of a substrate at any given point

Monochromatic

producing only one color: LP sodium lamps are monochromatic

Monoecious

having male (staminate flowers) and female (pistillate flowers) reproductive systems or flowers on the same plant

Morphology

the study of the form and structure of animals and plants

Mother Nature

the vast outdoors and all she holds: A mother plant may be grown from seed or be a clone

Mother Plant

female marijuana plant held in vegetative state and used for cutting (cloning) stock: A mother plant may be grown from seed or be a clone

Mulch

a protective covering for the soil of compost, old leaves, paper, rocks, etc.: Indoors, mulch keeps soil too moist and possible fungus could result - Outdoors, mulch helps soil retain and attract moisture

Mutation

an inheritable change in genetic material

Mycelium

the mass of strands that form the root-like part of fungi, often submerged in soil or a host body

N

N-P-K

nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium: the three major plant nutrients

Nanometer (nm)

0.000000001 meter, one billionth of a meter, nm is used as a scale to measure electromagnetic wavelengths of light: Color and light spectrums are expressed in nanometers

Necrosis/Necrotic

localized death of a plant part due to injury or disease

Nitrogen (N)

essential element to plant grow; one of the three major nutrients N-P-K

Node

a joint: the position on a stem from which leaves, shoots, or flowers grow

Nursery

gardening business that grows plants for sale or experimentation: A nursery is a great place to gather information

Nutrient

plant food, essential elements N-P-K as well as secondary and trace elements fundamental to sustaining plant life

O

Ohms Power Law

a law that expresses the strength of an electric current: Volts x Amperes = Watts

Open Pollination

pollination that occurs naturally, as opposed to controlled pollination, no effect of selection from human interference

Optimum

1. the most favorable condition for growth and reproduction 2. peak production

Organic

1. made of, derived from, or related to living organisms: Growers of organic cannabis use fertilizers and insect control methods of animal or vegetable origin - unaltered rock powders are also considered organic

Osmosis

the equalizing movement of fluids through a semi-permeable membrane, such as in a living cell

Outbreeding

breeding between individual cannabis plants that are not closely related

Outcross

the process of breeding using individual outside of the family, population, or group

Overload

load to excess: An electrical circuit that uses more than 80 percent of its potential is overloaded - a 20 amp circuit drawing 17 amps is overloaded

Ovule

egg which contains the female genes and is found within the plant ovary: When fertilized, an ovule will grow into a seed

Oxygen

tasteless, colorless, odorless, element: Plants need oxygen in the soil in order to grow

P

Parasite

organism that lives on or in another host organism without benefiting the host: Fungus is a parasite

Passive

hydroponic system that moves the nutrient solution through absorption or capillary action

Pathogen

a disease-causing micro-organism, especially bacteria, fungi, and viruses

Peat

partially decomposed vegetation (usually moss) with slow decay due to extreme moisture, cold, and acidic conditions

Perennial

a plant, such as a tree or shrub, which completes its life cycle over several years

Perlite

amendment of sand or volcanic glass expanded by heat, which aerates the soil or growth medium

pH

a scale from 0 - 14 that measure a growing medium's acid to alkaline balance: a pH of 7 is neutral, lower numbers indicate increasing acidity, and higher numbers increasing alkalinity: Cannabis grows best in a 6.5 to 8 pH range

pH Tester

electronic instrument or chemical used to measure the acid and alkaline balance in soil or water

Phenotype

the outward form, characteristic and appearance of a plant, determined by the interaction of the individual genotype with the environment phloem: the food- and water-conducting tissue of vascular plants

Phosphor Coating

internal fluorescent bulb coating that diffuses light and affects various color outputs

Phosphorus (P)

one of the macronutrients that promote root and flower growth

Photoperiod

the relationship between the length of light and dark in a 24-hour period; affects the growth and maturity of cannabis

Photosynthesis

the building of chemical compounds (carbohydrates that plants need for growth) from light energy, water and CO2

Phototropism

the environmental response movement of a plant part toward or away from a light source

Phyllotaxy

the arrangement of leaves on a stem, and the principles that govern such arrangement

Phytotron

a completely enclosed indoor area with extensive environmental growth (and study) of plants

Pigment

the substance in paint or anything that absorbs light, producing (reflecting) the same color as the pigment

Pistillate

female, having pistils but no functional stamens

Pistils

small pair of fuzzy white hairs extending from top of female calyx: Pistils catch pollen and channel it into contact with the ovule for fertilization

Pollen

fine, yellow, dust-like microspores containing male genes

Pollen Sack

male flowering containing pollen

Pollination

the transfer of male pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same or a different flower to fertilize ovules which produce seeds

Polyhybrid Cross

a hybrid plant crossbred for more than one trait

Pot

1. container for growing medium 2. American slang word for marijuana

Potassium (K)

one of the macronutrients necessary for plant life

Potbound

root system that is bound, stifled, or inhibited from normal growth by a too-small container

Potent

capable of wielding strong physiological or chemical effects: marijuana rich in THC that provides a desirable psychoactive effect

Power Surge

interruption or change in flow of electricity

Predatory Insect

beneficial insect or parasite that hunts down and devours harmful insects

Primordia

belonging to or characteristic of the earliest stage of development of an organism or a part

Progeny

one born of, begotten by, or derived from another; an offspring or a descendant: offspring or descendants considered as a group

Propagate

1. sexual propagation: to produce a seed by breeding male and female plant 2. asexual propagation: to produce a plant by cloning

Pruning

trimming branches or parts of plants to strengthen those that remains, or brings shape to the plant

Punnett Square

a tool developed by British geneticist, Reginald Punnett, used by biologists to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring

PVC Pipe (Polyvinyl Chloride)

plastic pipe that is easy to work with, readily available, and used to transport liquid and air

Pyrethrum

natural insecticide made from the blossoms of various chrysanthemums

R

Radicle

the part of a plant seedling that develops into a root, the root tip

Recovery

hydroponic system that reclaims the nutrient solution and recycles it

Rejuvenation

a mature plant, having completed its life cycle (flowering) that is stimulated by a new 18-hour photoperiod, to rejuvenate or produce new vegetative growth

Relative Humidity

ratio between the amount of moisture in the air and the greatest amount of moisture the air could hold at the same temperature

Resin Glands

tiny pores that secrete resin

Retting

to moisten or soak in order to soften and separate the fibers from the woody tissue by partial rotting

Roguing

to weed out inferior, diseased, or undesirable plants from a crop, field, or population area

Root

1. the underground part of a plant: Roots function to absorb water and nutrients as well as anchor a plant in the ground 2. to root (start) a cutting or clone

Root Hormone

root-inducing substance

S

Salt

crystalline compound that results from improper pH or toxic build-up of fertilizer: Salt will burn plants, preventing them from absorbing nutrients

Scion

the shoot (containing buds) that is used for grafting

Screen of Green (SCROG)

a growing medium which involves training cannabis shoots onto a net, trellis, or chicken wire

Scuff

to scrape and roughen the surface: Seeds with a hard outer shell germinate faster when scuffed

Sea of Green (SOG)

a method of growing tightly spaced cloned plantlets - clones are flowered almost immediately after rooting for a small yield per plant, but no wasted space

Seal-a-Meal

airtight sealer for plastic baggies used to seal in freshness of pungent marijuana

Secondary Nutrients

calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg): Ca and Mg are considered to be primary nutrients by some sources

Seed

the mature, fertilized ovule of a pistillate plant, containing a protective shell, embryo, and supply of food: A seed will germinate and grow, given heat and moisture

Seed Pod

a dry calyx containing a mature or maturing seed

Selfing

to fertilize with pollen from the same flower or plant; self-pollinating

Senescence

the (declining) growth stage in a plant or plant part from its prime to death

Sexual Propagation

in plants, the reproduction by means of seed following fertilization

Shake

slang term for 'Bunk,' lower growth, or least potent portion of harvest: small particles of cannabis broken off the main 'nug' inside a bag due to rough handling: Many times, shake is flaked or powder-like and used for cooking

Short Circuit

condition that results when wires cross and form a circuit - a short circuit will trip breaker switches and blow fuses

Sinsemilla

two Spanish words: sin = without, semilla = seed, combined into one word by Americans: Sinsemilla describes potent marijuana from flowering female cannabis plants kept seedless by preventing pollination in order to promote a high THC content

Soap

1. cleaning agent 2. wetting agent 3. insecticide: All soap used in horticulture should be biodegradable

Socket

threaded, wired holder for a light bulb

Soilless Mix

a growing medium made up of mineral particles such as vermiculite, perlite, sand, pumice, etc.: Organic moss is often a component of soilless mix

Soluble

able to be dissolved in liquid, especially water

Solution

1. a mixture of two or more solids, liquids, or gases, often with water 2. answer to a problem

Sponge Rock

large pieces of perlite, a light, mineral soil amendment

Spore

seed-like offspring of certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and some non-flowering plants

Sprout

1. a shoot of a plant, as from a recently germinated seed 2. small, new growth of leaf or stem

Square Feet (sq. ft.)

length x wide; a measurement of area

Stagnant

motionless air or water: for healthy cannabis growth, water must drain and not become stagnant

Stamen

the male floral organ, bearing the anther, which produces pollen to fertilize female flowers

Staminate

male, pollen-producing flower having stamens but no pistils

Sterilize

to make super clean by removing dirt, germs, and bacteria; disinfect pruning tools to avoid spreading disease

Stigma

the tip of the flower's pistil, which receives the pollen

Stigmatic

the portion of the pistil on which the pollen germinates

Stipule

one of a pair of small, leaf-like appendages found at the base of the leaf-stalk of many plants

Stomata

small mouth-like or nose-like openings on leaf underside, responsible for transpiration and many other life functions: The millions of stomata must be kept very clean to function properly

Strain

ancestry, lineage, phenotype, a particular type of cannabis having the same characteristics 

Stress

a physical or chemical factor that causes extra exertion by plants, usually by restricting fluid flow to foliage: A stressed plant will grow poorly

Substrate

the medium on which an organism lives, as soil, soilless mix, rock, etc.

Sugar

food product of a plant

Sump

a reservoir that receives drainage; a drain or receptacle for hydroponic nutrient solutions used for growing cannabis

Super Bloom

a common name for fertilizer high in phosphorus and potassium that promotes flower formation and growth

Synthesis

the production of a substance, such as chlorophyll, by uniting light energy, elements, or chemical compounds

T

Taproot

the main or primary root that grows from the seed: Lateral roots will branch off the taproot

Taxonomy

classification of plants and animals according to their family relationships

Teflon Tape

tape that is extremely useful to help seal all kinds of threaded pipe joints

Tepid Water

lukewarm water 70 - 80 F (21 - 27 C) water: Always use tepid water around plants to facilitate chemical processes and ease shock

Terminal Bud

the growth tip of main stem or branch

Terpene

hydrocarbons found in essential oils (resins) produced by plants; gives the resin a strong aroma

THC

tetrahydrocannibinol: physiologically active ingredient which is the primary intoxicant in marijuana

THCV

tetrahydrocannabivarol: a psychoactive chemical found in cannabis

Thermostat

a device for regulating temperature: A thermostat may control a heater, furnace, or vent fan

Timer

an electrical device for regulating photoperiod, fan, etc.: A timer is a must in all grow rooms

Toxic Life

the amount of time a pesticide or fungicide remains active or live

Transformer

a device in the ballast that transforms electric current from one voltage to another

Transpire

to give off water vapor and by-products via the stomata on leaves

Transplant

to uproot a plant and root ball and replant it in new soil

Trellis

a frame of small boards (lattice) that trains or supports plants

Trellising

method of restricting plant growth or altering its shape and size by tying plant to lattice work or wire screen

Trichome

resin-secreting plant hair

Triploid

having three sets of chromosomes within each cell, may contribute to increased vigor

Tungsten

a heavy, hard metal with a high melting point that conducts electricity well: Tungsten is used for a filament in tungsten halogen lamps

U

Ultraviolet

light with very short wavelengths, out of the far blue visible spectrum 

V

Variety

distinct strain, phenotype

Vascular

referring to a plant's circulatory system which carries sap throughout the body of the plant

Vector

1. an organism (as an insect) that transmits disease, a pathogen 2. an organism that transmits genes, a pollinator

Vegetative

growth stage in which cannabis rapidly produces new leafy growth and green chlorophyll

Vent

an opening such as a window or door that allows the circulation of fresh air

Ventilation

circulation of fresh air, fundamental to a healthy indoor garden: An exhaust fan creates ventilation

Vermiculite

mica processed and expanded by heat: Vermiculite is a soil amendment and medium for root cuttings

Vitamin B1

vitamin that is absorbed by tender root hairs, easing transplant wilt and shock

W

Weed

1. slang word for marijuana 2. any undesirable plant: One person's weed is another person's flower!

Wetting Agent

a compound that reduces the droplet size and lowers the surface tension of the water, making it wetter. Liquid concentrate dish soap is a good wetting agent if it is biodegradable

Whorl

where three or more leaves or petals arise from the same point and form a circle around it

Whorled Phyllotaxy

three or more leaves or branches located at each node along the branches and stems: People often confuse the term whorled phyllotaxy with the condition, triploidy (a chromosomal anomaly)

Wick

the part of a passive watering system the nutrient passes up to be absorbed by the medium and roots: A passive hydroponic system uses a wick suspended in the nutrient solution

Wilt

1. to become limp from lack of water 2. plant disease/disorder

Wire Ties

paper-coated wire ties are excellent for tying down or training plants

X

Xylem

vascular tissue that transports water and minerals from the roots throughout the stems and leaves

Z

Zero Zero (hash)

top-quality, first-sieve hash


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